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10.1 Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the development of Western political thought.

Judaism and Christianity both value the individual. The 10 Commandments teaches that all people matter and that they are all subservient to the law. Women were venerated under Judeo-Christian culture. The Greeks and the Romans value rule of law or “Orderly Society.” Athens was the first democracy ever.  The type of democracy they had was a direct democracy for all males. Rome had the first indirect democracy. Direct democracy votes for their own leaders and indirect democracy votes for representatives. The Code of Justinian or the 12 tables gave due process. Due process is when a person is innocent until proven guilty. Divine rights of kings is rule by heredity rather then merit. God chose the king making it if you disobey the king, you disobey God.

1. Analyze the similarities and differences in Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman views of law, reason and faith, and duties of the individual.
The people who had the Ten Commandments are known as the Judeo Christians while the Romans had the 12 tables.  Many of the teachings in these commandments were basically under the Roman law. Considering this, faith was totally different. Greco Roman life was known as polytheistic which something was thought immoral in Christian practices. Many or all of the women were not free in the east which means that they were not treated equally. Judeo-Christians and Greco-Romans relied on laws and religion. Judeo-Christianity is monotheistic and Greco-Romans and polytheistic. Both of them were the blocks of western civilization. Human life was venerated for both and justice value was also venerated. Greco-Romans were more into reason and Judeo-Christianity was more into faith.

2. Trace the development of the Western political ideas of the rule of law and illegitimacy of tyranny, using selections from Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics.
The rule that is known to be the brightest is called Meritocracy.  Although you may be smart has no connection or very little connection between being honest and having common sense .Plato's views on tyranny was perfect in many ways.  For example, no certain leader should gain too much power.  This is because it is least likely for this certain person to gain control over the whole country. The smartest leader ruling over everyone else is being classified as the Philosopher Kings. Aristotle was anti democracy. Plato’s republic is based on reason. Reason why there is a law and government is to keep order. Law is valued in western civilization. The laws were there to avoid chaos.

3. Consider the influence of the
U.S. Constitution on political systems in the contemporary world.
Some people in the World would have liked to have a liberal democracy while some wanted a different type of government.  The French revolution was that to fight against this terrible monarchy which helped with the right of women and the freedom of the men. For example, the French revolution was sparked by our revolution against the British, and led them to revolt. The Declaration of the Rights of man and citizen were sparked from our constitution as well. Constitution promotes world freedom. It perpetuated world democracy like in France and England. There are now about eighty plus countries in the world that are democratic. Most of the countries are indirect and parliamentary. The constitution promotes freedom, civil rights, liberty, human rights, justice, life, and pursuit of happiness. The constitution also promotes women’s suffrage and minority rights.

10.2 Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of
England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution and their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations for self-government and individual liberty.

They all promote change through revolution and lead to new government. They involve conflict between the people. Another similarity is that they promote individual freedom or civil liberties. A difference is that the American Revolution made a new nation and the other two rebuilt the nations. Another similarity is that they removed power from the kings. Some effects there were are transitions from royal authority to the authority of the people. The U.S. constitution became a model for other rising democracies.

1. Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions in England, the United States, France, and
Latin America (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Simon Bolivar, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison).
The philosophers' ideas greatly affected the democratic revolutions. In many aspects, their beliefs on free speech, human rights, and freedoms led the way for democracy in other countries. They did not believe that the monarchy system was correct, that power should be given to the people, which they should not be ruled over. Social contracts were also followed, that the government owes a certain amount to the people. A shift from faith to reason occurs that tangible things are greater than faith. John Locke believed in life, liberty, and property. He also believed that the rulers were responsible for the well being of people. He also said that people should have the right to rebel against unjust rulers (social contract). Montesquieu believed that there should be branches in the government like the executive branch, legislative, and judicial branch to limit powers of the leader. Rousseau believed that all people are good but was corrupted by society. He was also pro democracy. He questioned the majority. Simone Bolivar was a Latin revolutionary. Thomas Jefferson wrote the declaration. James Madison thought of the principles of the declaration.

2. List the principles of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights (1689), the American Declaration of
Independence (1776), the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789), and the U.S. Bill of Rights (1791).
These documents chronicled democratic ideas such as power directly to the people, related to human rights, "life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness." Things won't necessarily be handed to you, but you have the chance to work for it. The documents also led into one another, ideas from one directly affected the following. The Magna Carta reduced the power of the king and gave the belief that men were born free. It also forms a powerful parliament. All of them made the government serve the people rather then the people serving the government. The English Bill of Rights limited the monarchs power and put the power in the hands of parliament. The American Declaration of Independence declared autonomy from King George III of
England. The French Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen made it so there would me no monarch.

3. Understand the unique character of the American Revolution, its spread to other parts of the world, and its continuing significance to other nations.
The American Revolution showed other countries that unjust rules could be fought, and a country could escape its Monarch. Also, the Declaration of Independence led to other famous documents, especially in
France. This is when the Divine Rights of Kings were first challenged. Taxation without representation was also challenged at this time too. At this point in time Europe moves in the direction of liberal democracy. All of this leads to the birth of the U.S. constitution which impacts the growth of freedom and world democracies.

4. Explain how the ideology of the French Revolution led
France to develop from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic Empire.
The French Revolution was a peasant revolt that overturned the French monarchy, which was spurned on by Napoleon. As the revolution occurred, Napoleon stepped in and became a dictator, and ruled the country.  They believed in individual rights, or democracy. Napoleon was an over seer of the democracy in
France, hence he was a dictator. A constitutional monarchy is a document that limits power for the monarch to protect the people. Despot is a dictator of democracy. Napoleon was a despot. Napoleon was the first ruler of Consul. He wanted to expand them empire.

5. Discuss how nationalism spread across
Europe with Napoleon but was repressed for a generation under the Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe until the Revolutions of 1848.
When Napoleon steps out of power, nationalism falls short, since he no longer controls the military. Metternich proposes a return to monarchy that revolutions cause nothing but trouble, so the nationalism faded. Napoleon spread nationalism in France to gain support. Nationalism helped shape the borders. He gave it a French identity. Metternich was an anti-radical revolutionary. He wanted to return to the old order (monarchy). But in the end democracy wins. 

10.3 Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in
England, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States.

There was global trade, new technology, pollution, new jobs, labor abuse, and an increase in train. The labor abuse involved children and working hazards. Social mobility was also another thing that came from the Revolutions. The Industrial Revolutions also influenced imperialism. It also colonized the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Urbanization and new literature like Charles Dickens. The literacy rate increases. England was the first to industrialize because they had resources, and the people to work. There was also a population increase when a nation industrialized.

1. Analyze why
England was the first country to industrialize.
England had the best economy at the time of industrialization, as well as a central position in Europe, with both power and wealth. Also, England had a strong empire, as well as a good army and navy, and also held position over many other countries. Also, natural resources and a large population assisted this. They had perfect conditions. They had resources, labor, surplus crops, capital investment, educated population and a stable government.

2. Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, and Thomas Edison).
These new changes allowed urbanization to occur, which completely changed the economy, led to new jobs and opportunities, and changed the course of history, which, in turn, made living conditions much better. The steam engine allowed people to travel at much faster speeds, as well as import/export. The assembly line also made a large difference. Steam engine helped make commercial travel. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin which resulted in new wardrobes. Sterilization (medicines).

3. Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration, and growth of cities associated with the Industrial Revolution.
With more jobs on the horizon, cities became an economic hub, so if a person was going to make a living, moving to a city would be the only way. Also, many factories and certain jobs were only available in cities. Cities soon became overcrowded, so housing was less than expected. The rural would go from the rural areas into the cities to try and get jobs to support their families. It was a transition from farms to cities. There were pollution and plumbing problems. The cities were not ready for urban growth. To urbanize, a surplus of crops were also needed to feed the people in the cities.

4. Trace the evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement.
Labor Unions rose up, and were called guilds. Many people could only take certain jobs if you were inside a guild, but you got many benefits from it. Immigration is used as a cheap form of labor, especially in slavery.
Britain challenged against the African slave trade. There were guilds and unions to protect labor abuses. Imperialism takes place because they want natural resources.  

5. Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship, labor, and capital in an industrial economy.
Natural resources were necessary to start an economy, and laborers were needed to find these resources. Natural resources fueled Industrialization. Capital equals investment equals business and growth of innovation. Capital is the money invested to make a business bigger. In all nations around the world right now, they are looking for inexpensive workers so they can drive up their profit.

6. Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism.
Capitalism rose as 'social Darwinism', ruled with laissez-faire, free market economy. No government intervention with many jobs. The downside is that monopolies occur, if one person gets something good, he can take over everything. Utopianism isn't plausible, since 'heaven on earth' isn't possible. Social Democracy is democratic propaganda, essentially, 'spreading democratic themes throughout the world.' Socialism -> 'everyone gets the same'. Communism -> 'workers get the same'. Industrialization creates competition which equals capitalism. Utopianism, heaven on earth, is fantasy. In Utopianism, it will devoid of government intervention. Utopianism is against Darwinism or “Survival of the Fittest.” Social democracy spreads a message globally that says its against communism. Socialism is a Utopian in nature. It has total equality for all. Communism is birthed out of socialism. In Communism the workers are equal but the government gets wealthy. In socialism workers lack incentive.

7. Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature (e.g., the poetry of William Blake and William Wordsworth), social criticism (e.g., the novels of Charles Dickens), and the move away from Classicism in
Romanticism is an exaggeration of sorts, to cover up the darkness of the past, an 'escape' of sorts. Social criticism shows both the light and darkness in a situation, as in Dickens' "Tale of two cities." Classicism is moved away from, since someone can now change their social status, and will no longer have "born poor die poor.” Romanticism is fantasy exaggeration from life’s reality. It deals with human emotion like love, sadness, and anger. Social criticism is social class levels. Capitalism is rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer. Industrialization leads to competition which leads to capitalism and away from classicism, which means you can now have social mobility. Capitalism and Industrialization needed each other to prosper.

10.4 Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries: Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philippines.

1. Describe the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and colonial-ism (e.g., the role played by national security and strategic advantage; moral issues raised by the search for national hegemony, Social Darwinism, and the missionary impulse; material issues such as land, resources, and technology).
They want to expand. They had they ability to become a bigger country so they looked at the third world countries and educated them. Social Darwinism is used saying that they were taking over because they wanted cheaper labor and better markets. They did it because they said they could. Social Darwinism takes over for resources and rationalizes it for them selves. Social Darwinism is survival of it the fittest. Industrialization fuels colonialism also known as Imperialism. The annexation of territory is also fueled by industrialization. The British controlled
Africa, India, China, and Middle East. Missionaries were for Christian conversion. It involved the Judeo-Christian Ethic. Missionaries were also known as the social gospel. Land annexation is about labor, resources, and markets to sell products. Karl Marx said that capitalism leads to war.

2. Discuss the locations of the colonial rule of such nations as England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States.
These nations attempted to colonize in
Africa and Asia. The Africans did not want to be colonized by the Europeans. They Europeans went into Third World Countries, or what were considered that then, and used the colonies for resources, labor, etc. The west wants to colonize the east. In Imperialism there are ethnocentric issues.  

3. Explain imperialism from the perspective of the colonizers and the colonized and the varied immediate and long-term responses by the people under colonial rule.
Imperialism was good for the colonizers, as they had complete and total rule over the economy of they place they were colonizing. They felt that they were superior and rationalized exploiting them and using their national resources. For the colonized, they lost control of they're societies due to people coming over and taking control of their economy and government. Some of the natives, however, enjoyed the new technologies being shown to them. The long term responses: fear in the
Middle East, Africa, and Asia. The colonizers think that it’s all good because they think that they are helping them with technology, higher standard of living, order, and they’re more civilized. In the eyes of the people getting colonized they see that they are losing self determination and going into a sphere of influence. There was also an insensitivity to culture, religion, and traditions. The colonized make independence movements. For example: Gandhi in India. In WWI, many were promised independence by were lied to. In the area of the world where this was promised was Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.


4. Describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions of the world, including the roles of leaders, such as Sun Yat-sen in China, and the roles of ideology and religion.
The first half of the 20th century saw the gradual disintegration of the old order in
China and the turbulent preparation for a new society. Foreign political philosophies undermined the traditional governmental system, nationalism became the strongest activating force, and civil wars and Japanese invasion tore the vast country and retarded its modernization. Although the revolution ushered in a republic, China had virtually no preparation for democracy. A three-way settlement ended the revolution-abdication by the dynasty; relinquishment of the provisional presidency by Sun Yat-sen in favour of Yüan Shih-k'ai, regarded as the indispensable man to restore unity; and Yüan's promise to establish a republican government. This placed at the head of state an autocrat by temperament and training, and the revolutionaries had only a minority position in the new national governments. China wanted to isolate itself from the west. Japan adopted western ways to survive. Communism vs. democracy, tyranny vs. freedom, and socialism vs. capitalism in China was fought about in China. Sun Yat-Sen was a nationalist who had Civil War vs. Communist. The U.S. supported the Nationalists yet the communist was less corrupt.

10.5 Students analyze the causes and course of the First World War.

1. Analyze the arguments for entering into war presented by leaders from all sides of the Great War and the role of political and economic rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, domestic discontent and disorder, and propaganda and nationalism in mobilizing the civilian population in support of "total war."
The British felt threatened by
Germany's economic growth.  The Germans were making more factories and out producing the old economic strong hold, Britain.  Imperialism divided the European nations and in the early 1099s the competition for colonies brought France and Germany to the brink of war.  Before the war the arms race began and all the great powers started building up their armies. A lot of the leaders were engaged in tangled alliances. Nationalism in the extreme and ethnic cleansing happened. The Ottoman Turks butchered Armenian Christians. The Great War was a technological war that was thought to end quickly but they were wrong. It went from 1914 -1918. They were competing for territory and resources. Europe didn’t have a war for 100 years so they romanticized. There was a wide spread of propaganda for support of the war. Militarism caused all resources to go into the military. Militarism is also known as Total War. 

2. Examine the principal theaters of battle, major turning points, and the importance of geographic factors in military decisions and outcomes (e.g., topography, waterways, distance, climate).
World War I was what we call a total war. In a total war, all of nation's resources go into the war effort. Governments drafted men to fight the war. They raised taxes to pay the costs of fighting. They rationed, or limited the supply of goods, so that they could supply the military. They used the press to publish propaganda that made the enemy look bad. Propaganda is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause.  Geographic factors: mountains, lakes, rivers, desert, all contributed to harsh conditions during WWI. There was a two front war for the Germans. There was grid lock in the trenches. 
El Alamein was the battle in Africa. Russia pulled out of WWI when Lenin promises peace.

3. Explain how the Russian Revolution and the entry of the
United States affected the course and outcome of the war.
By 1917,
Europe had seen too much death and ruin. In Russia, low morale, or spirits, led to revolution. Early in 1918, the new leader signed a treaty with Germany that took Russia out of the war. Russia's withdrawal was good news for the Central Powers. However, there was good news for the allies too. The United States was no longer neutral. In April 1917, the United States declared war on Germany. With new soldiers and supplies from the United States, the Allies gained control. The other Central Powers had given up, and the Germans stood alone. they asked for an end to the fighting. On November 11, 1918, an armistice, or agreement to end fighting, was declared. The Great War was over. There was Red vs. Whites. The reds were communists and the whites were loyal to the czar. When U.S. entered the war, the morale of the allies went up and they solidified control of the Western Front.    

4. Understand the nature of the war and its human costs (military and civilian) on all sides of the conflict, including how colonial peoples contributed to the war effort.
World War I was truly a world war with participants drawn from five continents and military actions spread around the globe.  There were some specific outcomes and impacts for Africans as a result of WWI.  These include the fact that military conscription (draft) of numerous African colonial subjects into European armies   generated great amounts of anger.  But the war had more concrete consequences.   Africans who fought alongside European whites found out that these "masters" were ordinary people, not supermen.  Furthermore Africans expected to be rewarded for their service to their colonial masters with social and constitutional changes as well as economic concessions in ways that would improve their living conditions at home.  The educated elites followed up on President Woodrow Wilson's (
United States) call to reorganize governments on the basis of national self-determination. The term means that people should be independent and live within political boundaries that corresponded to where they lived. The colonized were promised self determination and never got it. Millions die in Russia and Germany. Infrastructures were wiped out in Europe. Some of the best talents in Europe were killed. Factories were destroyed and the U.S. gets a Monopoly. The colonized people in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia were promised perks but were never given to them.

5. Discuss human rights violations and genocide, including the Ottoman government's actions against Armenian citizens.
The greatest single disaster in the history of the Armenians came with the outbreak of World War I. In 1915 the Young Turk government resolved to deport the whole Armenian population of about 1,750,000 to
Syria and Mesopotamia. It regarded the Turkish Armenians-despite pledges of loyalty by many-as a dangerous foreign element bent on conspiring with the pro-Christian tsarist enemy to upset the Ottoman campaign in the east. In what would later be known as the "first genocide" of the 20th century, hundreds of thousands of Armenians were driven from their homes, massacred, or marched until they died. The death toll of Armenians in Turkey has been estimated at between 600,000 and 1,500,000 in the years from 1915 to 1923. Tens of thousands emigrated to Russia, Lebanon, Syria, France, and the United States, and the western part of the historical homeland of the Armenian people was emptied of Armenians. Turkish government never admitted to the genocide. The Ottoman, Seljuk, and Turks cause genocide against the Armenian Christians. 2 million were killed.

10.6 Students analyze the effects of the First World War.

1. Analyze the aims and negotiating roles of world leaders, the terms and influence of the Treaty of Versailles and Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the causes and effects of the United States' rejection of the League of Nations on world politics.
The Treaty of Versailles was bitterly criticized by the Germans, who complained that it had been "dictated" to them, that it violated the spirit of the Fourteen Points, and that it demanded intolerable sacrifices that would wreck their economy. In the years after it was ratified the Treaty of Versailles was revised and altered, mostly in
Germany's favor. Numerous concessions were made to Germany before the rise of Adolf Hitler, and by 1938 only the territorial settlement articles remained. The fourteen points were to issue diplomacy rather then war. The League of Nations dealt with disputes diplomatically and with military. The U.S. rejected the League of Nations because U.S. sovereignty was called into question. The fourteen points issued no secret treaties and created a climate of distrust. The blame is disproportional on Germany in the Treaty of Versailles.
2. Describe the effects of the war and resulting peace treaties on population movement, the international economy, and shifts in the geographic and political borders of
Europe and the Middle East.
World War 1 had a great effect on all of the people involved and on everyone who saw what was going on. The war was at the time the greatest war that the world had seen, and it was known as the Great War. It was a struggle between
Europe's great powers, and they were all aligned into two different alliances. The alliances caused rifts between the European countries and they also were affected by the rise in nationalism in the European countries.

3. Understand the widespread disillusionment with prewar institutions, authorities, and values that resulted in a void that was later filled by totalitarians.
The rise of nationalism.
Europe avoided major wars in the 100 years before World War I began. Although small wars broke out, they did not involve many countries. But during the 1800's, a force swept across the continent that helped bring about the Great War. The force was nationalism--the belief that loyalty to a person's nation and its political and economic goals comes before any other public loyalty. That exaggerated form of patriotism increased the possibility of war because a nation's goals inevitably came into conflict with the goals of one or more other nations.

4. Discuss the influence of World War I on literature, art, and intellectual life in the West (e.g., Pablo Picasso, the "lost generation" of Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway).
Later career. After World War I (1914-1918), Picasso moved from cubism to a style derived from classical art, characterized by huge and stately figures. By the late 1920's, he had turned to a flat, cubist-related style. In these works, he concentrated mainly on two themes: the artist and model, and the bullfight. The masterpiece of this period is
Guernica (1937). This mural painting expresses the terror of the bombing of the town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).

10.7 Students analyze the rise of totalitarian governments after World War I.

1. Understand the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution, including Lenin's use of totalitarian means to seize and maintain control (e.g., the Gulag).

The communist produced a democratic and socialist constitution.  Lenin created a secret police to enforce his will.  The secret place was a gulag.  Family members would sell out their own family just for Lenin. 

2. Trace Stalin's rise to power in the Soviet Union and the connection between economic policies, political policies, the absence of a free press, and systematic violations of human rights (e.g., the Terror Famine in Ukraine).

Stalin was the general secretary and used that job to find out information about Russia.  He then bought out high-powered Russian military and government leaders.  He sentenced peasants to give them all of his food.  He got rid of what was left of the free press.  Stalin ended up killing over five million Russian peasants. Stalin followed Lenin. He robs banks to get money for his party and was arresting for it.

3. Analyze the rise, aggression, and human costs of totalitarian regimes (Fascist and Communist) in
Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union, noting especially their common and dissimilar traits.

Germany and Italy rose up together as fascist states.  Both of these countries focused on building up war machines including making guns, tanks, bombs, and missles.  These countries were lead by totalitarian leaders that would stop at nothing.  Hitler and Mussolini killed many people, some Jews, some peasants, and many other people. State is more important than the individual.

10.8 Students analyze the causes and consequences of World War II.

1. Compare the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s, including the 1937 Rape of Nanking, other atrocities in China, and the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939.
This was an agreement that they would leave each other alone. The rape of
Nan king was when the Japanese went into china and abused the Chinese like the Nazis to the Jews. This was rape and murder and an attempt to destroy their race. These are all totalitarian regimes that are trying to collect and build empires.

2. Understand the role of appeasement, nonintervention (isolationism), and the domestic distractions in
Europe and the United States prior to the outbreak of World War II.
Europe and the US were disgraced by things like movies and television while many people in the countries that were against us did not have that

3. Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers on a map and discuss the major turning points of the war, the principal theaters of conflict, key strategic decisions, and the resulting war conferences and political resolutions, with emphasis on the importance of geographic factors.
Germany, Poland, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, and France were all the Allied and Axis powers.  Great Britain and France hoped that the Soviet Union would help defend Poland.  Hitler and Stalin stunned the world by becoming allies.  On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland and began WWII.  In 1939, Soviet forces invaded Poland from the east side.  Great Britain and France declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939.  In April 1940, German forces invaded Norway.  They conquered Denmark on the west.  Norway fell to the Germans in June 1940.  The conquest of Norway secured Germany's shipments of iron ore.  Norway also provided bases for German submarines and aircraft.  Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands all hoped to remain neutral after World War II began but requested Allied help when Germany launched a "blitzkrieg" against them.  German troops entered Paris on June 14, 1940.  The French government had already fled the capital.

4. Describe the political, diplomatic, and military leaders during the war (e.g., Winston Churchill,
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Emperor Hirohito, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower).
The political leaders during WWII varied in characteristics.  Churchill was a combination of soldier, writer, artist, and statesman. During WWII, Roosevelt and Winston Churchill,
Great Britains prime minister, personally determined Allied military and naval strategy in the West.  They gave priority to Germany's defeat and, in view of Hitler's claim that Germany was never defeated, only betrayed, in the first war, insisted on unconditional surrender." Hitler started the war and lost the war. MacArthur was in charge of pacific war and was in charge of Japan democratization. Eisenhower was a general that became president. Mussolini was hanged. Hirohito was a pharaoh like political leader and surrendered after Hiroshima and Nagasaki. FDR was 12 year president. And after he dies, Truman comes in as president. After Roosevelt,  died, a constitutional amendment was put in where presidents were only allowed 2 terms. Churchill follows Neville Chamberlin. Stalin fought in the east and spread Communism. MacAurthur was fired by Truman for having to much power. 

5. Analyze the Nazi policy of pursuing racial purity, especially against the European Jews; its transformation into the Final Solution; and the Holocaust that resulted in the murder of six million Jewish civilians.
The Nazis wanted to create a racially elite society.  So in order to do this, Himmler Hitler's companion, decided to get rid of all the racially impure people.  Jews, and other different people that weren't Aryan, got put in separate areas and eventually got deported. The final solution was to exterminate all Jews and any one else that was different. However the Jews were considered the main scapegoat, and were exterminated in mass killings and some Jews often died of fatigue. The final solution for Hitler’s plan was to exterminate the Jewish people in
Europe. The Nazis believed in a perfect Aryan or Caucasian race. Blaming the Jews for the depression was a scapegoat from the Nazis. The Jews were not killed right away. They had their civil rights removed first to weaken them. Genocide is the systematic destruction of a race or group of people.     

6. Discuss the human costs of the war, with particular attention to the civilian and military losses in Russia, Germany, Britain, the United States, China, and Japan.
WWII Chinese deaths are estimated at 1.3 million military and 10 million civilians. It is not clear in net records if these estimates of multi-million Chinese civilian deaths include those of the earlier 1930's Japanese aggression. To discuss just one aspect of WWII in China, after Doolittle's bombing raids on Tokyo, the Japanese invaded the area of China that the bombers landed in, they occupied 20,000 square miles, and slaughtered every man, woman, and child some 250,000 civilians were killed in this one action. The European infrastructure was destroyed. They lose their best and brightest talent due to the war. The Russians and the Germans lose the most people. They lose millions of people. At the end of the war,
Russia and the United States are the most powerful nations. One is Communist and the other is Democratic Capitalist.  

10.9 Students analyze the international developments in the post-World World War II world.

1. Compare the economic and military power shifts caused by the war, including the Yalta Pact, the development of nuclear weapons, Soviet control over Eastern European nations, and the economic recoveries of
Germany and Japan.
An agreement reached at the Crimea (Yalta) Conference between President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Generalissimo Stalin. The United States and Russia was in a nuclear arms race and it was a cold war. The United States had lots of bombs already made and so we dropped a bomb on Hiroshima in world war two which killed many people and was regret my many people. Yalta leads to splitting of Germany East and West. The Berlin wall split the country. In 1989 the wall falls. The USSR controlled eastern Europe and the USA controls Western Europe. Germany and Japan were given loans from the US to rebuild. In the 1960’s Japan will out produce America.


2. Analyze the causes of the Cold War, with the free world on one side and Soviet client states on the other, including competition for influence in such places as Egypt, the Congo, Vietnam, and Chile.
American fear of communist attack, Truman's dislike of Stalin, Russia's fear of the Americans atomic bomb, Russians dislike of capitalism, Russians actions in the Soviet zone of Germany, America's refusal to share nuclear secrets, Russians expansion west into Eastern Europe and broken election promises, Russians fear of American attack, Russians need for a secure western border, and Russians aim of spreading world communism, are some of the causes of the cold war. It was an Ideological war. It was
US verses the USSR. It was a war to spread ideas and Communism verses Democracy. Free enterprise verses socialism was also another thing that was fought about. A big cause of the war was the totalitarian leadership by Stalin and Lenin.

3. Understand the importance of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, which established the pattern for America's postwar policy of supplying economic and military aid to prevent the spread of Communism and the resulting economic and political competition in arenas such as Southeast Asia (i.e., the Korean War, Vietnam War), Cuba, and Africa.
Addressing a joint session of Congress on
March 12, 1947, President Harry S. Truman asked for $400 million in military and economic assistance for Greece and Turkey and established a doctrine, aptly characterized the Truman Doctrine, that would guide U.S. diplomacy for the next forty years. The Marshall Plan was a rational effort by the United States aimed at reducing the hunger, homelessness, sickness, unemployment, and political restlessness of the 270 million people in sixteen nations in West Europe.  Truman Doctrine spreads aid abroad to spread Democracy world wide. It is also to resist the spread of communism. Marshall Plan gave European aide for a recovery program in 1985. It offered aide to the USSR and Stalin kept it a secret. 

4. Analyze the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung, and the subsequent political and economic upheavals in
China (e.g., the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and the Tiananmen Square uprising).

The story of the Chinese civil war is the tale of a failed state in which numerous domestic political and military factions are struggling for power, while aggressive foreign powers are impinging on Chinese sovereignty, and at the same time the entire world is plunged into the Great Depression, WWII, and the
early stages of the Cold War. The 1989 student uprising at
Tiananmen Square has come to represent the battle between the heroic defenders of democracy and the villainous proponents of Communism. Mao was a communist leader that was victorious over the U.S. The Great Leap Forward went west so they could get higher educations. They come to U.S. Universities. Cultural Revolution was Agarian transformation to Urban City factory civilization. Tiananmen Square Controversy was a student demonstrations were pro-democracy.

5. Describe the uprisings in
Poland (1952), Hungary (1956), and Czechoslovakia (1968) and those countries' resurgence in the 1970s and 1980s as people in Soviet satellites sought freedom from Soviet control.
Government-controlled elections in 1947 gave the Communists full control, and in 1952
Poland became a people's republic on the Soviet model. In 1956 widespread riots against Soviet control brought to power rightist deviationist. A period of increased freedom followed, but by the 1960s was reverted to the more rigid policies. In January 1968, Alexander Dubcek became leader of the Czech Communist Party and promised to introduce reforms. This was welcomed enthusiastically and a mood of optimism led to what was known as the Prague Spring.

6. Understand how the forces of nationalism developed in the Middle East, how the Holocaust affected world opinion regarding the need for a Jewish state, and the significance and effects of the location and establishment of Israel on world affairs.
Expressions of nationalism in the Arab world before & after the demise of the
Ottoman Empire (1300-1918): Turkey & Iran; Palestine Arab nationalism & Zionism; Ottomans & pan-Arabism; the Islamic salafi movement; Wahhabism & Islamic fundamentalism; & religious Zionism. On May 14, 1948, on the day in which the British Mandate over a Palestine expired, the Jewish People's Council gathered at the Tel Aviv Museum, and approved the following proclamation, declaring the establishment of the State of Israel.

7. Analyze the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union, including the weakness of the command economy, burdens of military commitments, and growing resistance to Soviet rule by dissidents in satellite states and the non-Russian Soviet republics.
By the time Gorbachev would usher in the process that would lead to the political collapse of the Soviet Union and the resultant dismantling of the Soviet administrative command economy through his programs of Glasnost (political openness) and Perestroika (economic restructuring), the Soviet economy suffered from both hidden inflation and pervasive supply shortages; NUKES-poor

8. Discuss the establishment and work of the United Nations and the purposes and functions of the Warsaw Pact, SEATO, NATO, and the Organization of American States
The Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty was a military alliance of the Eastern European Soviet Bloc countries intended to organize against the perceived threat from the NATO alliance, established in 1949, but specifically spurred by the integration of a "re-militarized" West Germany into NATO with the Western nations' ratification of the Paris agreements. The treaty was drafted by Khrushchev in 1955 and signed in
Warsaw on May 14, 1955. U.N. (1948) is the League of Nations that is a diplomatic body. Warshaw Pact is USSR Satellite Nations or a Sphere of Influence.  SEATO stands for South East Asian Treaty Organization.

10.10 Students analyze instances of nation-building in the contemporary world in at least two of the following regions or countries: the
Middle East, Africa, Mexico and other parts of Latin America, and China.
All of these nations have begun some kind of nation building to reestablish their country and to regain balance.  Not many of these countries are headed toward democracy, but some such as
Africa and India have made small steps toward a free government. 

1. Understand the challenges in the regions, including their geopolitical, cultural, military, and economic significance and the international relationships in which they are involved.
Africa has much diversity between regions because they live in very different geographical areas.  Africa is plagued by much disease and famine.  Africa is not militarily modernized yet, overpopulation, lack of funds, and a corrupted government has made Africa struggle to support its people.  China, which is still led by a totalitarian government, suffers greatly from overpopulation, a recent population boom has made the government allow each family to have only one child. NAFTA stands for North American Free Tran Agreement between Mexico, America, and Canada. Nation building is the transformation from 3rd world nations to 1st world nations.

2. Describe the recent history of the regions, including political divisions and systems, key leaders, religious issues, natural features, resources, and population patterns.
The recent history is that it was extremely frightening in every single way shape and form.

3. Discuss the important trends in the regions today and whether they appear to serve the cause of individual freedom and democracy.
China does not have strong individual rights, but more so in China where the people are oppressed by their strong totalitarian government.  Such events as Tinimans Square have proved to everyone that the government in China will not be quick to let up its firm hold on ChinaIndia which is part of the Middle East is known for its new government that was established after the imperialism of Britain was stopped.  Ghandi played a strong role in this and helped to remove the tendrils of Britain from India's government.

10.11 Students analyze the integration of countries into the world economy and the information, technological, and communications revolutions (e.g., television, satellites, computers).
United States and a couple other nations pretty much depend on each other in the sense of vital goods and different types of services.  This is basically done through world trade and finance.  Economists look for ways to increase international trade and try to help poor countries improve their economic condition. Nations can gain by trading with one another because the resources of the world are not distributed evenly throughout. Despite the advantages of world trade, nations have tried to limit imports and produce many of their own goods and services. Many nations fear that specializing in a few supplies of essential goods and services might be cut off (a reason why we saw gas prices raising before the war started).  The technological development of modern communication was a huge improvement over previous technology. It has changed the lives of the world and changed who we are and who we become. Television, like many other inventions, originated from the research and thinking of many people.
U.S. and other nations depend on one another for many vital goods and services, through world trade and finance.