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CH. 32
terrorism - deliberate use of random violence, especially against civilians, to exact


revenge or achieve political goals. Terrorists focus there their attention on their causes

and tried to force governments to give in to there demands.

Privatization - selling off state-owned industries to private investors. Nations hoped to

see more efficient private enterprises would produce higher quality goods in the long run.

Nonaligned - not allied to either side of the Cold war. The goal of this movement was to

reduce world tension and promote economic policies that would benefit developing nations.

multinational corporation - enterprises with branches in many countries. These have invested in the developing world. Some see interdependence as the worlds next Imperialism.

liberation theology - Roman Catholic clergy adopted the movement. They urged the church to take a more active role in opposing the social conditions that contributed to poverty.

Interdependence - dependence on countries for goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world. Transportation and communication systems have made the world increasingly interdependent.

culture shock - people who move from villages to cities often feel stress and isolation or culture shock. Without the support of a village and extended family, older beliefs and values are undermined by urban values.

acid rain - produced by gases from power plants and factories. A form of pollution in which toxic chemicals in the air come back to the earth as rain, snow or hail.

effects of Cold War - women began to gain more rights. In Latin America, some Roman Catholic Clergy adopted the movement of Liberation Theology.

why did democracy fail in many new nations? - after the war parties took over to restore government. Democracy took too long to set up and there were nations trying to get them to go to communism and other forms.

majority of world's wealth controlled by ? - controlled by global north. Consists of the industrial nations of western Europe and North America, as well as Japan and Australia. They were all capitalist economies except Sweden.

effect of urbanization in developing nations - many received culture shock. Many old traditions were abandoned as people went into the cities.

factories effect on environmental damage - they produced acid rain. Fertilizers and pesticides threatened water and the soil. Oil spills polluted the oceans.

factors contributing to political instability in African nations - civil wars and other struggles prevented economic development. Military dictators and other leaders spent huge sums of money on weapons and warfare instead of on education, housing or healthcare.

primary cause of global interdependence -transportation was one cause. Communication systems was the other that made the world an increasingly interdependent.

global South - consists of the developing world. Most nations are in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Considered poor compared with the Global North.

modern technology - the hydrogen bomb was in the process. More began to harness the power of the Atomic bomb.

CH. 33
welfare state - a major goal of the leftist party.
The government keeps more features of a capitalist economy but takes greater responsibility for the social and economic needs of its people.

Glasnost - openness. This was launched by Gorbachev in his reform.

Dissident - people who spoke out against the government. Critics faced arrest and imprisonment.

Deficit - the gap between what a government spends and what it takes in through taxes and other sources. Government spending and tax cuts greatly increased the national deficit.

détente - relaxation of tensions. Brought new agreements to stop nuclear stockpiles
Leonid - took over the Soviet Union. He vigorously repressed dissidents and made them face death or imprisonment

Brezhnev - took over the Soviet Union. He vigorously repressed dissidents and made them face death or imprisonment.

Charles de Gaulle - voters turned to him. He set up the 5th republic and made peace with the Algerians.

Martin Luther King Jr. - emerged and organized boycotts and led peaceful marches. He was a gifted preacher that led the civil rights movement.

Joseph McCarthy - senator that accused many Americans of harboring communist sympathies. He was condemned by the Senate but not after his charges had ruined the careers of thousands of Americans.

Margarent Thatcher - British leader who opposed increased links with Europe. Led conservatives to denounce the welfare state as costly and inefficient. She worked to replace government social and economic programs with what she called "enterprise culture" that promoted the individual initiative.

Perestroika - restructuring of government and the economy. This was Gorbachev's second reform to end Cold War Tensions. Streamlining government and reducing the size of the bureaucracy, he hoped, would boost efficiency and output.

service industry - one that provides a service not a product. They included health care, finances, sales, recreation etc.

Mikhail Gorbachev - of power and launched 2 pronged efforts at reform, glasnost and perestroika. He was eager to reform inefficiencies in government and the economy, but this spiraled out of control, swamping him and the Soviet Union.

Helmut Kohl - West German Chancellor who was an architect of unity. He assured both Soviet Union and the West that a united Germany would pose no threat to peace and was voted chancellor of a united Germany.

Nikita Krushchev - set up the Warsaw Pact for defense against the NATO. Publicly denounced Stalin's misuse of power and perused the idea of de-Stalinization. He freed many politicians and ceased censorship after he became leader of the Soviet Union.

Josip Tito - set up communist power in Yugoslavia and refused to join the Warsaw Pact. A fierce guerrilla leader who had battled German occupying forces and claimed to be neutral in the Cold War.

Lech Walesa - leader of shipyard workers from port of Gdansk. The organized an independent trade Union called Solidarity. This Union was later cracked down and the leaders were arrested and he became a national hero.

reunification of Germany - In 1990 German voters approved reunification. Kohl became chancellor of a united Germany.

goal of separatism in Quebec - Quebec was demanding more autonomy within Canada.

The people in Quebec wanted to become separated from Canada.

result of central economic planning in the Soviet Union - When the economic planning

came into play things did not work out and they fell apart. They were forced to run the government a different way,

civil war in Yugoslavia - There was a civil war between three major religions, the orthodox Catholics, the Roman Catholics, and the Muslims. They fought each other for many reasons.