terrorism - deliberate use of random violence, especially against civilians, to exact
revenge or achieve political goals. Terrorists focus there their attention on their causes
and tried to force governments to
give in to there demands.
Privatization - selling off state-owned industries to private investors. Nations hoped to
see more efficient private
enterprises would produce higher quality goods in the long run.
Nonaligned - not allied to either side of the Cold war. The goal of this movement was to
reduce world tension and promote
economic policies that would benefit developing nations.
multinational corporation -
enterprises with branches in many countries. These have invested in the
developing world. Some see interdependence as the worlds next Imperialism.
liberation theology - Roman
Catholic clergy adopted the movement. They urged the church to take a more
active role in opposing the social conditions that contributed to poverty.
Interdependence - dependence on countries for goods, resources,
and knowledge from other parts of the world. Transportation and communication
systems have made the world increasingly interdependent.
culture shock - people who move
from villages to cities often feel stress and isolation or culture shock.
Without the support of a village and extended family, older beliefs and values
are undermined by urban values.
acid rain - produced by gases from
power plants and factories. A form of pollution in which
toxic chemicals in the air come back to the earth as rain, snow or hail.
effects of Cold War - women began
to gain more rights. In
why did democracy fail in many new
nations? - after the war parties took over to restore
government. Democracy took too long to set up and there were nations trying to
get them to go to communism and other forms.
majority of world's wealth
controlled by ? - controlled by global north. Consists of the industrial
nations of western Europe and
effect of urbanization in
developing nations - many received culture shock. Many old traditions were
abandoned as people went into the cities.
factories effect on environmental
damage - they produced acid rain. Fertilizers and pesticides threatened water
and the soil. Oil spills polluted the oceans.
factors contributing to political
instability in African nations - civil wars and other struggles prevented
economic development. Military dictators and other leaders spent huge sums of
money on weapons and warfare instead of on education, housing or healthcare.
primary cause of global
interdependence -transportation was one cause. Communication
systems was the other that made the world an increasingly
global South - consists of the
developing world. Most nations are in
modern technology - the hydrogen
bomb was in the process. More began to harness the power of the Atomic bomb.
welfare state - a major goal of the leftist party. The government keeps more features of a capitalist economy but takes greater responsibility for the social and economic needs of its people.
Glasnost - openness. This was launched by Gorbachev in his
Dissident - people who spoke out against the government.
Critics faced arrest and imprisonment.
Deficit - the gap between what a government spends and what
it takes in through taxes and other sources. Government spending and tax cuts
greatly increased the national deficit.
détente - relaxation of tensions.
Brought new agreements to stop nuclear stockpiles
Leonid - took over the
Brezhnev - took over the
Charles de Gaulle - voters turned to him. He set up the 5th
republic and made peace with the Algerians.
Martin Luther King Jr. - emerged and organized boycotts and
led peaceful marches. He was a gifted preacher that led the civil rights
Joseph McCarthy - senator that accused many Americans of
harboring communist sympathies. He was condemned by the Senate but not after
his charges had ruined the careers of thousands of Americans.
Margarent Thatcher - British leader who opposed increased
Perestroika - restructuring of government and the economy.
This was Gorbachev's second reform to end Cold War Tensions. Streamlining
government and reducing the size of the bureaucracy, he hoped, would boost
efficiency and output.
service industry - one that
provides a service not a product. They included health care, finances, sales,
Mikhail Gorbachev - of power and launched 2 pronged efforts
at reform, glasnost and perestroika. He was eager to reform inefficiencies in
government and the economy, but this spiraled out of control, swamping him and
Helmut Kohl - West German Chancellor who was an architect of
unity. He assured both
Nikita Krushchev - set up the Warsaw Pact for defense
against the NATO. Publicly denounced Stalin's misuse of power and perused the
idea of de-Stalinization. He freed many politicians and ceased censorship after
he became leader of the
Josip Tito - set up communist power in
Lech Walesa - leader of shipyard workers from
goal of separatism in
The people in
result of central economic planning
came into play things did not work
out and they fell apart. They were forced to run the government a different
civil war in