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Ch. 19

Suffrage: the right to vote


Sans-culottes: working class men and women who called for radical action in France during the French Revolution


Abdicate: to give up a high office


Deficit spending: situation in which a government spends more then it takes in.


Plebiscite: ballot in which voters have a direct say on an issue


Blockade: the shutting off of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out


Bourgeoisie: the middle class


Nationalism: feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country


Émigré: person who flees his or her country for political reasons.


Louis XVI: he was a well meaning king but was weak and indecisive. He chose Jacques Necker, a financial wizard as an adviser.


Clemens von Metternich: he was the prince of Austria. Metternich was a dominant figure in the Congress. He wanted to restore the status quo of things.


Napoleon: In 1812 he pursued his dream of empire by invading Russia. His last defeat was the thought of the end of the French Revolution.


Olympe de Gouges: She was a female journalist that demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Women. She said that women were born free and that they deserved the same rights as men get.


Robespierre: He was a shrewd lawyer and politician that quickly rose to the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety. He adapted to Rousseau’s idea of the general will. He promoted religious toleration and sought to abolish slavery.


Jacques Louis David: He was a leading artist at the time of all of this. He immortalized stirring events like the Tennis Court Oath and, later, the reign of Napoleon.


who denounced Fr. Rev? Why?: When Louis XIV was decapitated. This was done because he had broken and law and had to pay for his wrong doings.


Reign of Terror: This is when the National Assembly abolished feudalism and introduced new religious reforms. During this time Robespierre was the one that lead the Committee of Public Safety.  

Napoleon annexed who?: Napoleon annexed the Netherlands and Belgium. He also annexed parts of Italy and Germany.


Congress of Vienna: The congress met for ten months, from September 1814 to June 1815. It was a brilliant gathering of European leaders.


Ch. 23

Alexander II: He came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean War. After a long time of people pushing reforms at him from all sides he finally gave in for the reforms.


Francis Joseph: He was an eighteen year old boy that inherited the throne. He ruled until the year 1916.


Giuseppe Garibaldi: He was a long time nationalist and an ally of Mazzini. He wanted to create an Italian Republic.


Otto von Bismarck: He came from Prussia’s junker class and became a leading person of the time. In 1862 King William I made him chancellor.


William II: He succeeded his grandfather as Kaiser. He was supremely confident with his abilities and wished to put his own stamp on Germany.


Camillo Cavour: He was appointed a spot as prime minister. He came from a noble family but favored liberal goals.


Anarchist: person who wants to abolish all government


Refugee: person who flees his or her homeland to seek safety somewhere else.


Pogrom: violent attack in Jewish community


Zemstvo: local elected assembly set up in Russia under Alexander II