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Ch. 27
Militarism- This is the glorification of the military. In the late 1800’s there was a rise of this and under this the armed forces and readiness for war came to dominate national policy.  

Ultimatum- This is a final set of demands. Austria sent Serbia one of these after the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and said they would declare war if Serbia did not agree to it.  

Mobilize-This is to prepare the military forces for war. When Russia did this, Germany responded by declaring war on them.  

Neutrality- This is a policy of supporting neither side in a war. Italy and Britain tried to remain neutral but were forced to pick aside.  

Total war- This is the channeling of a nations entire resources into a war effort. During World War I many countries saw that without total war they could lose.  

Propaganda- This is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an apposing cause. Posters, songs, and cartoons are all different forms of propaganda used during war. 

Atrocity- These are horrible acts against innocent people. There are many horrible stories of these from wartime.  

Armistice- This is an agreement to end fighting. The new german government sought on of these from the Allies and this ended the war. 

Reparations- This is a payment for war damage. Germany was forced to pay huge reparations that forever weekend their government.  

Mandate- These are territories that were administered by Western Powers. Many treaties that were set up created this system of mandates.  

Edith Cavell- She was a British nurse who ran a Red Cross hospital in Belgium even after the German invasions. She became known as a national hero.  

Georges Clemenceau- He was one of the “Big Three” who helped make decisions at the Paris Peace Conference and helped make the Treaty of Versailles. He was a French leader and he had a fierce war policy.

Alfred Nobel- He invented dynamite and the nobel peace prize. He later felt guilty for how his invention of dynamite was being used.

 

Gavrillo Princip- He was the assassin who killed Archduke francise Ferdinand. He never said he didn’t murder the Archduke and only admitted to regretting killing a woman. But because he was under 20 years of age he was not executed but instead died in prison from tuberculosis.  

Sarajevo- As Archduke Francis Ferdinand drove through the city of Sarajavo there was an attempt at his assassination. This first attempt was failed but he was soon killed in another part of Sarajevo.  

Woodrow Wilson- He was another member of the “Big Three” and was the president of the United States. He urged “peace without victory” and proposed the 14 points.  

(Wilson's Fourteen Points Points)- This was a list of Wilson’s terms that were supposed to resolve this and future wars. He called for an end to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, and large-scale reductions of arms.  

Francis Ferdinand- he was the Archduke of Serbia and was not a supporter of democracy which did not make him popular. He ignored many warning not to go to Sarajevo and later felt the consequences. 

Kaiser William II- He was the Kaiser of Germany. He boasted of his great navy and caused Britain to expand their navy from speculations of their motives.  

Bertha Von Sutner- She was a baroness who was born into an Austrian military family. She wrote an antiwar novel named Lay Down Your Arms. She organized and Austrian peace society and was the only woman to attend the Hague conference.  

Triple Alliance- Germany formed the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy in 1882.  They did this because a previous treaty with Austria-Hungary and Russia was very weak and did not work out.  

Ottoman Empire- Germany signed a treaty with the Ottoman Empire while Britain drew close to Japan. Rather than easing the tensions the growth of rival alliances only led to more.  

Trench warfare- This is an underground network linked bunkers. On the Western front the warring armies burrowed into a vast system of trenches.  

Machine gun (role it played in WWI)- The machine gun was an important piece of evidence of how the arms race worked during this time. The machine gun made it easier for trench warfare and made it more possible to kill more people in a shorter amount of time.  

Airplane (role it played in WWI)- The airplane made it possible to travel easier and made it possible to drop bombs on different areas. It was also an important part of the arms race.  

Role of women in WWI- Women played a major role in total war because as the men left and went off to war women took their places and basically kept the country running. Women also helped by running red Cross hospitals and aiding as nurses on the battlegrounds.   

Nationalism (ie. tension between France and Germany)- Nationalism is a stong sense of pride in ones own country. This caused a lot of issues because of the tensions between France and Germany. It was hard for any alliances to work out when they felt so close to their country alone.  

Paris Peace Conference- The Paris Peace Conference was headed up by the “Big Three” which consisted of Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, and David Lyoed George. The Paris Peace Conference helped to solve many of the issues after the war and put almost all of the blame on Germany and made them pay huge reparations.  

American neutrality- The Americans decided to remain neutral for the majority of the war but they were finally dragged into the war because the continued attacks by German submarines on merchants and passenger ships carrying American citizens. In 1917, the United States decided to join the war against Germany and its Allies. 

Black Hand- The Black Hand was a terrorist group organized by Bosnian Serbs. Principe joined this group before the assassination of Francis Ferdinand and was probably a main reason for the assassination. This group was involved in organizing all South Slav people into a single nation and they were also known as the Unity or Death. 

Treaty of Versailles- The treaty of Versailles was mainly put together on Woodrow’s 14 points and was headed up by the “Big Three”. This treaty was signed outside of Paris in the palace of Versailles this also helped to put the blame on Germany and put them under an agreement.  

Self determination- Woodrow Wilson often spoke of democracy and self-determination and this talk raised expectations for a just and lasting peace. Although it seemed so great it also posed a lot of problem by having other countries start to demand national states of their own.  

Shleiffen Plan- The Schlieffen Plan was created by General Alfred Von Schlieffen and it was his plan to avoid from getting into a two front war. Under this plan Germany first had to quickly defeat France then move onto fight Russia.  

U boat- U boats were used to launch torpedoes at enemy ships. U boats helped with leading many attacks on innocent merchant ships and this probably one major reason the United States joined the war. 

Lusitania- This was a British ship and almost 1,200 people, including 128 Americans, were killed on it. After torpedoing the ship, the Germans justified the attack by arguing that it was carrying weapons 

Armistice- This is an agreement to end fighting. The new German government sought on of these from the Allies and this ended the war. 

Mandate- These are territories that were administered by Western Powers. Many treaties that were set up created this system of mandates. 

War reparations- Germany was forced to pay enormous war reparations which caused the German economy to forever be weekend.  Also Germany was forced to take all the blame and these reparations were part of the punishment.  

Western front- On the Western front the armies were warring in trench warfare. It stretched from the Swiss frontier to the English Channel.

Eastern front- On the Eastern front, battle lines swayed back and forth, usually over large areas. Luckily there were fewer casualties than in the West. 

Verdun-The Battle of Verdun was most likely one of the bloodiest battles of the war. Over 2 million people fought in the war in the town of Verdun on February 21, 1916.

Battle of Marne- In the first battle at Marne on September 6, 1914, advances made by the Germans to Paris were stopped by the Allies. The Germans then retreated and abandoned the Schlieffen plan. The German Army took a major blow before they were destroyed on on the second battle in July of 1918.

 

CH. 28
Soviet - Soviets were councils of workers and soldiers.  These were set up to insure that people could get food in the cities.

Command economy - Economy where government officials made all basic economic decisions. Soviet Union developed a command economy.

Collectives - Under Stalin land was taken away from the people and the commoners were forced to work on state farms or collectives.  Collectives were pieces of land owned by a large number of peasants.

Kulak - A Kulak was a wealthy peasant. Under Stalin's rule all kulaks had to be destroyed. 

Totalitarian state - form of government where a one-party dictatorship attempts to regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizens. Stalin tuned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state.

Socialist realism - Socialist realism was a style of art that showed socialism in a "positive light".  Under Stalin most artists and writers were forced to change to socialist realism.

Lenin - Lenin's real name was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov.  As a child his brother was arrested for attempting to murder Alexander III.  While in school he read works by Karl Marx and participated eagerly in student demonstrations. 

Osip Mandelstam - Jewish poet that was imprisoned, tortured, and exiled for composing a satirical verse about Stalin. For fear of his wife he gave up and wrote an 'Ode to Stalin'.

Nicholas II - In Easter 1913 Nicholas gave his wife a beautiful jeweled egg.  This egg symbolized the 300th anniversary of the dynasty.  

Gregory Rasputin -  A phony "healer" in which the czarina thought would heal her only son, Alexis.  At one point this phony healer could hire and fire officials as he pleased, causing the government to be corrupt.  He was known as the "mad monk".  

Joseph Stalin - After Lennin's sudden death in 1924 Joseph Stalin became one of the main leaders. He was known as the "man of steel", and put his top supporters as high officials to crush the other leader Trotsky. He had a ruthless policy in office and his rule in office was absolute.

Stalin's 5 Year Plan - Stalin's main goal was building a heavy industry, improving transportation, and increasing farm output.  To achieve all of these things he put the economy under his control with a command economy.

Socialist realism - Three years of war hit the economy very hard. Stories of incompetent generals and corruption destroyed the public confidence. Bread riots in St Petersburg transformed into a revolution that brought down the Russian monarchy.


Totalitarian state - As Marx's predicted under communism, the state would slowly wither away.  The Soviet Union is a perfect example of this.  Stalin made the USSR into a totalitarian state, in which a one-party dictator attempts to regulate every aspect of one person's life. 

Anna Akhmatova -  She was one of Russia's greatest poets, however due to socialist realism, her work was not seen.  To keep her genius poetry and writings safe her closest friends memorized them.

V.I. Lenin - Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov.  He was the main person to spread Marxist ideas among factory workers along with other socialists. He eventually led the Bolsheviks to take over the czar and convert Russia into a socialist nation.

Mikhail Sholokhov - The writer of And Quiet Flows the Don.   The book tells about a man who spends WWI fighting the Russian Revolution and the Civil war.  Later he received a Nobel Prize for his work.

Joseph Stalin - he was one of the chief contenders to take over Lenin's communist government after he suddenly died. Stalin won the battle and set up the Soviet Union in Russia.

Leon Trotsky - When Lenin died he was in a race with Stalin for power.  Trotsky was a brilliant Marxist thinker and a skillful speaker, however due to loaded elections Trotsky lost. 

Socialist revolution - The Socialist Revolution began when Lenin and the Bolsheviks plotted together to kill Nicolas II. After Nicolas II was dead Lenin came into power and was liked by many until he died and Stalin came into power.

Bolshevik Revolution - The Bolsheviks was ready to do almost anything to get their way.   Most people were both happy and scared at the overthrowing of the czar.  People were happy that they were going to rule their own country yet, also scared about how powerful and fast the takeover lasted.

Lenin's New Economic Policy - Lenin wanted to make something that Marx would be proud of.  He wanted to give the people an equal amount of everything, and therefore make a classless society. 

Stalin - Joseph Stalin took power after Lenin's sudden and unfortunate death. Stalin's real name given to him at birth was Joseph Djugashvili; Stalin also was born to a poor family in Georgia. As Stalin grew up he studied priesthood, but he was never truly interested in being a priest.

Stalin's 5 Year Plan - Stalin's main goal was building a heavy industry, improving transportation, and increasing farm output.  To achieve all of these things he put the economy under his control with a command economy.

The arts under Stalin - Under Stalin all art had to be shown in a positive light in Socialism.  This movement was called a socialist realism.

List three causes of the 1917 revolution in Russia - people were upset about being forced to stay in World War I.  they had no more weapons, food, and clothing.  They, the people, felt that they needed more freedom.

 

Ch. 29
apartheid
civil disobedience
Diego Rivera
Hirohito
Jiang Jieshi
Muhammad Ali Jinrah
Nationalization
Pancho Villa
Cause of the 1910 Mexico Revolution
Pan-Africanism
Mandate System (M. East)
Great Salt March
May Fourth Movement
Effect of Great Depression in Japan
CH. 30
general strike
stream of consciousness
flapper
concentration camp
Leon Blum
Marie Curie
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Virginia Woolf
Albert Einstein
James Joyce
Pablo Picasso
Joseph Pilsudski
Frank Lloyd Wright
Kellog-Briand Pact
Fascism
Adolph Hitler
totalitarian rule
Mein Kampf
campaign against the Jews
Great Depression
Mussolini
Weimar Republic
Kristallnacht
List causes of Great Depression-

CH. 31
Appeasement – appeasement is giving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace. Western democracies took this approach in dealing with Hitler’s early rise

Blitzkrieg – blitzkrieg is another term for “lightning war.” This term was given to the type of attack Nazi forces used when storming Poland. German planes bombed airfields, factories, towns, and cities quickly and very affectively in order to advance in 1939.

cold war – conflicting ideologies and mutual distrust between the former Allies who defeated the Nazis (Soviet Union and nations of the West) led to the Cold War. This war was not a war at all, but a state of hostility and tension and constant threat of war between the major rivals.

Collaborator – A person who cooperates with an enemy. Some people were collaborators who helped the Nazi’s hunt down the Jews.

Containment – The Truman Doctrine was rooted in the idea of containment, limiting communism to the areas already under Soviet control. George Kennan, the American statesman who first proposed this approach, believed that communism would eventually destroy itself.

Genocide – The deliberate attempt to destroy an entire religious or ethnic group. Hitler sought to destroy all of the Jews because of his hatred against them.

Kamikaze – To save their homeland, many Japanese became Kamikaze pilots, who undertook suicide missions, crashing their planes loaded with explosives into American warships.

Pacifism – The great depression sapped the energies of the western democracies. Finally, widespread pacifism, or opposition to all war, and disgust with the last war pushed governments to seek peace at any price.

Winston Churchill – The Czech crisis revealed the Nazi menace. British politician Winston Churchill, who had long warned of the Nazi threat, judged the diplomats harshly.  Later he would replace Chamberlain as prime minister. 

Francisco Franco – Franco led a revolt that started a bloody civil war. His group known as nationalists rallied all others including communists, socialists, Loyalists, supporters of democracy, and others.

Dwight Eisenhower – Eisenhower was the supreme Allied commander who faced jobs such as assembling troops and supplies. Eisenhower was also in charge of leading the second front in Europe.

Haile Selassie – He was the king of Ethiopia. He appealed to the League of Nations when his country was being attacked by Italy. He led defending Ethiopian troops.

Harry Truman – After Roosevelt died suddenly on April 12th 1945, President Harry Truman took his place. Truman had to decide whether to drop an atomic bomb or to send millions of men to their death. During his few weeks as Vice President, Harry S. Truman received no briefing on the development of the atomic bomb or the unfolding difficulties with Soviet Russia.

Dunkirk – In a desperate gamble, the British sent every available naval vessel, merchant ship, and even every pleasure boat across the choppy channel to pluck strand troops off the beaches of Dunkirk and Ostend.

El Alamein – In Egypt, the British under General Bernard Montgomery finally stopped Pommel’s advance during the long, fierce Battle of El Alamein.

Guernica – among the worst horrors was a German air raid on Guernica, a small Spanish market town of no military value; estimated 1,600 people were killed

Hiroshima – On August 6, 1945 an American plane dropped an atomic bomb on the mid size town of Hiroshima. The bomb completely flattened four square miles and instantly killed 70000 people. More died of radiation in the following years

Nagasaki – this is known as the second atomic bomb, on Nagasaki. This bomb killed more than 40,000 people.

Pearl Harbor – As tension grew between America and Japan, General Tojo ordered a surprise attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor. On December 7, 1941 Japanese airplanes struck, destroying 19 ships, numerous planes, and killing 2400 people.

Operation Barbarossa – Hitler embarked on Operation Barbarossa in June of 1941; conquest of Soviet Union; motives: wanted to fain “living space” for Germans and to win control of regions rich in resources

D-Day – allies invade France; June 6, 1944. All of France was freed within a month, 176,000 troops were ferried across the English Channel

Battle of Midway – Six months after Pearl Harbor, American warships and airplanes severely damaged Japanese fleets at the Battle of Midway Island. This was the first in a series of island hopping campaigns to get closer to Japan itself.

Francisco Franco – Franco led a revolt that started a bloody civil war. His group known as nationalists rallied all others including communists, socialists, Loyalists, supporters of democracy, and others. 

Tojo Hideki – Tojo Hideki was the General of Japan who ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor. During the attack, 19 ships were damaged or destroyed, and nearly 2500 Americans lost their lives.

Neville Chamberlin – he was he prime minister of Britain. He declared that the Munich pact had “saved Czechoslovakia from destruction and Europe from Armageddon.”

Franklin Roosevelt – US President. He signed the Atlantic Charter with Churchill that set goals for the war, especially an ultimate destruction of the Nazi tyranny.

Stalingrad – Soldiers fought for two weeks straight during the battle of Stalingrad. Both Hitler and Stalin were determined to capture the city. The German commander finally surrendered in 1943.

Explain 2 reasons why the US used the atomic bomb against Japan: Well, first, Japan was too powerful and threw a threat toward the United States. And second, the United States wanted to put an end to the war so they did so which killed just as many people as going into each city and killing them one by one.


CH. 32
terrorism - deliberate use of random violence, especially against civilians, to exact

 

revenge or achieve political goals. Terrorists focus there their attention on their causes

and tried to force governments to give in to there demands.

Privatization - selling off state-owned industries to private investors. Nations hoped to

see more efficient private enterprises would produce higher quality goods in the long run.

Nonaligned - not allied to either side of the Cold war. The goal of this movement was to

reduce world tension and promote economic policies that would benefit developing nations.

multinational corporation - enterprises with branches in many countries. These have invested in the developing world. Some see interdependence as the worlds next Imperialism.

liberation theology - Roman Catholic clergy adopted the movement. They urged the church to take a more active role in opposing the social conditions that contributed to poverty.

Interdependence - dependence on countries for goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world. Transportation and communication systems have made the world increasingly interdependent.

culture shock - people who move from villages to cities often feel stress and isolation or culture shock. Without the support of a village and extended family, older beliefs and values are undermined by urban values.

acid rain - produced by gases from power plants and factories. A form of pollution in which toxic chemicals in the air come back to the earth as rain, snow or hail.

effects of Cold War - women began to gain more rights. In Latin America, some Roman Catholic Clergy adopted the movement of Liberation Theology.

why did democracy fail in many new nations? - after the war parties took over to restore government. Democracy took too long to set up and there were nations trying to get them to go to communism and other forms.

majority of world's wealth controlled by ? - controlled by global north. Consists of the industrial nations of western Europe and North America, as well as Japan and Australia. They were all capitalist economies except Sweden.

effect of urbanization in developing nations - many received culture shock. Many old traditions were abandoned as people went into the cities.

factories effect on environmental damage - they produced acid rain. Fertilizers and pesticides threatened water and the soil. Oil spills polluted the oceans.

factors contributing to political instability in African nations - civil wars and other struggles prevented economic development. Military dictators and other leaders spent huge sums of money on weapons and warfare instead of on education, housing or healthcare.

primary cause of global interdependence -transportation was one cause. Communication systems was the other that made the world an increasingly interdependent.

global South - consists of the developing world. Most nations are in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Considered poor compared with the Global North.

modern technology - the hydrogen bomb was in the process. More began to harness the power of the Atomic bomb.

CH. 33
welfare state - a major goal of the leftist party. The government keeps more features of a capitalist economy but takes greater responsibility for the social and economic needs of its people.

Glasnost - openness. This was launched by Gorbachev in his reform.

Dissident - people who spoke out against the government. Critics faced arrest and imprisonment.

Deficit - the gap between what a government spends and what it takes in through taxes and other sources. Government spending and tax cuts greatly increased the national deficit.

détente - relaxation of tensions. Brought new agreements to stop nuclear stockpiles
Leonid - took over the Soviet Union. He vigorously repressed dissidents and made them face death or imprisonment

Brezhnev - took over the Soviet Union. He vigorously repressed dissidents and made them face death or imprisonment.

Charles de Gaulle - voters turned to him. He set up the 5th republic and made peace with the Algerians.

Martin Luther King Jr. - emerged and organized boycotts and led peaceful marches. He was a gifted preacher that led the civil rights movement.

Joseph McCarthy - senator that accused many Americans of harboring communist sympathies. He was condemned by the Senate but not after his charges had ruined the careers of thousands of Americans.

Margarent Thatcher - British leader who opposed increased links with Europe. Led conservatives to denounce the welfare state as costly and inefficient. She worked to replace government social and economic programs with what she called "enterprise culture" that promoted the individual initiative.

Perestroika - restructuring of government and the economy. This was Gorbachev's second reform to end Cold War Tensions. Streamlining government and reducing the size of the bureaucracy, he hoped, would boost efficiency and output.

service industry - one that provides a service not a product. They included health care, finances, sales, recreation etc.

Mikhail Gorbachev - of power and launched 2 pronged efforts at reform, glasnost and perestroika. He was eager to reform inefficiencies in government and the economy, but this spiraled out of control, swamping him and the Soviet Union.

Helmut Kohl - West German Chancellor who was an architect of unity. He assured both Soviet Union and the West that a united Germany would pose no threat to peace and was voted chancellor of a united Germany.

Nikita Krushchev - set up the Warsaw Pact for defense against the NATO. Publicly denounced Stalin's misuse of power and perused the idea of de-Stalinization. He freed many politicians and ceased censorship after he became leader of the Soviet Union.

Josip Tito - set up communist power in Yugoslavia and refused to join the Warsaw Pact. A fierce guerrilla leader who had battled German occupying forces and claimed to be neutral in the Cold War.

Lech Walesa - leader of shipyard workers from port of Gdansk. The organized an independent trade Union called Solidarity. This Union was later cracked down and the leaders were arrested and he became a national hero.

reunification of Germany - In 1990 German voters approved reunification. Kohl became chancellor of a united Germany.

goal of separatism in Quebec - Quebec was demanding more autonomy within Canada.

The people in Quebec wanted to become separated from Canada.

result of central economic planning in the Soviet Union - When the economic planning

came into play things did not work out and they fell apart. They were forced to run the government a different way,

civil war in Yugoslavia - There was a civil war between three major religions, the orthodox Catholics, the Roman Catholics, and the Muslims. They fought each other for many reasons.

 

Ch. 34
Asian tigers
commune
Diet
domino theory
Four Modernizations
gross domestic product
Khmer Rouge
"Little Red Book"
Hong Kong
Japan
Pacific Rim
Singapore
Vietnam
Mao Zedong
Four Modernizations
North Korea
South korea
General MacArthur's military govt goals.-
Nationalist
Ho Chi Minh
Importance of Pacific Rim to Global Economy.-
effect of American occupation of Japan post WWII.-
Communist Revolution
Cold War Countries (ie. China, N. Korea, N. Vietnam) elaborate on each.-
Ch. 35
Green Revolution
harijan
intifada
Ayatollah Khomeni
kibbutzim
Kurds
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Jawaharlal Nehru
harijan
hejab
ulama
Bangladesh
Beirut
West Bank
Pakistan
Palestine
Muslim and Hindu tension
Palestinian and Jewish conflict
Nasser
PLO
Water supply in Middle East
Ch. 36
Jomo Kenyatta
Nelson Mandela
mixed economy
Julius Nyerere
Organizations of African Unity
Mobutu Sese Seko
SWAPO
ujamaa
ANC
F,W, de Klerk
Mau Mau
Kwame Nkrumah
ethnic conficts in Nigeria
Minority government in Rhodesia
African battleground countries during the Cold War.-
Algeria's battle for Independence
Zimbabwe's majority rule
apartheid
economic sanctions agianst S. Africa-
African urbanization
weakening of African cultures
colonial rule
Islam as a revolutionary force in Africa.-