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History: they were invaded by the Vikings. Normans were the French. British King Henry the 8th called himself the lord of Ireland. Irish were called the Celtics. King Henry wanted a male heir but they kept giving him female heirs. Henry left the catholic church because they would not let him have a divorce. English won battle making Irish to leave Catholicism and gave English good land and gave Irish bad land. If you were Irish and remained catholic, they were poor. There was no middle class. Southern Ireland was given the Irish cause it was rocky land and English kept Northern Ireland.  

Current political state (ie, N. part of UK): There is a chance for peace between the Irish and the British. They are trading peace for land.

extremism (ie, IRA): Terrorism was used by the Irish. IRA: Irish Republican Army. IRA were radical Catholics and the orange order. 

reunification (Who wants it? who doesn't? means what?): the people that want reunification are the Irish. The British don’t want reunification. Irish want their land back, British want to keep it for themselves.

III. Pacific Rim/ Trade

history(ie, Kennedy 1961): JFK gave Japanese money because he felt bad for the.

trade balance (in favor of who?): Trade balance is in favor of the Japanese.

IV. National Debt

national debt vs. deficit: national debt is the amount that other countries owe to the United States or we owe to other countries. Deficit is the amount of interest on the National debt.

magnitude of national debt(possible analogies): We owe are always paying off money to other countries so we can be safe or because the other country needs money.

effect on future: next generation will be paying our debt still.


treatment & research: there is no treatment at the moment for and AIDS.

history: came from intimacy between two gay males.

causes & prevention: you can prevent AIDS by being safe.

CH. 5
*Minoan civilization and the importance of its location- The location of the Minoan Civilization was important because they were able to grow crops in the area and it was hard to attack the Minoans from where they were.

*Explain how Sparta's location was important. - The location was important because from where they were, it was easy for them to attack other nations without losing a bunch of soldiers during to march to the location.

*Trojan war- location – Trojan War was in Athens. The war was between the Trojans and the Greeks over land in Greece.

*geography of Greece created?: The geography of Greece was created by the ocean level use to being higher making large land forms under that water that are now the mountains that are in Greece.

* post Persian wars domination: Persia was one of the most powerful nations in the eastern civilizations. They were the only ones that came close to beating the Greeks in a war.

*Peloponnesian War: The Peloponnesian War was between he Greeks and Sparta. Sparta was inland so it would be hard for the Greeks to attack because they were not able to attack by sea.

*Greek theater origins: Their theater originated when the Greeks began to make and tell stories. When that happened they began to act out the stories and are still done today in Europe.

*Alexander's achievements and empire: Alexander the Great was one of the greatest rulers ever to be known of. He ruled almost all of the Mediterranean Civilization when he was in power.

*center of Hellenistic world: The Hellenistic world was employed by armies, architects, and artists. They would build temples, palaces, and other public buildings that would be very large.

*geographic characteristics of Greece: Greece was known for their large buildings that were well built. Their architecture was the greatest of the Mediterranean Civilization. They were mass works of art.

*oligarchy: Government in which ruling power belongs to a few people.

*democracy: Government in which the people hold ruling power.

*Spartan childhoods: Spartan boys were brought up as soldiers. The females were to work at home with the mothers to make food for the men.

*Athens' golden age: This was when Athens was not under attack at all. There were no problems with other countries.

*Aristotle's meritocracy: Meritocracy was a mix of the goods from Democracy, Monarchy, and Aristocracy.

*Greek values: The Greeks would do anything that would involve their gods in a good way. If this was not the fact, they would listen to the eldest person in the family.

CH 6

*Augustus: Augustus was a ruler that was good. He was the one that lead Greece into the  Golden Age. He was most famous for that

*Julius Caesar: Julius Caesar was know for being a great leader when it came to fighting.
  He didn’t have the brains, but he did have the tactics and whit to be a strong commander and ruler.

*Hannibal: Hannibal was always out to destroy Rome. At the age of nine, his father made him take a sacred oath to make his life destiny to take down the Roman empire.

*Jesus: Jesus is a big symbol in the Roman Catholic Church. Jesus was the son of the Virgin Mary. He is known as the one that opened the gates to heaven again.

*Paul: Paul was someone that was important in the history of Rome. He did many things that influenced the religions of Rome.

*Odoacer: Odoacer is something that is not mentioned in the book so I have no clue what it is.

*Ptolemy: He was a person that was important to the Catholic Church. He played a big role when it came to doing things involving the church.

*Virgil: I have no clue who Virgil is. I can not find anything about him in the section that we are reading.

*martyr: people who suffer or die for their beliefs.

*mercenary: foreign soldiers serving for pay.

*messiah: savior sent by god

*patrician: member of the landholding upper class in Ancient Rome

*plebian: Member of the lower class in Rome, including farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders.

*aqueduct: Bridge like stone structure that carried water from the hills to the cities.

*heresy: religious belief that is contrary of the official teachings of a church.

*legion: Basic unit of the ancient Rome Army, made up of about 5,000 soldiers.

*republic: system of government in which officials are chosen by the people.

*sect: small religious group.

Ch. 8-9

*Peasant: A member of the class constituted by small farmers and tenants, sharecroppers, and laborers on the land where they form the main labor force in agriculture.   

*Usury: Practice of lending money at interest.  

*Capital: Money for investment.  

*Tithe: Payment to a church equal to one tenth of a person’s income.  

*Fief: An estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty.  

*Chivalry: Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages.  

*Charter: A written document that set out the rights and privileges of a town. 

*Troubadour: Wandering poet in Europe in the Middle Ages.  

*Manor Economy: The economy of a lord’s estate.  

 *How monks and nuns lived: Monks and nuns lived their lives under a vow. Their vow was to be nice to everyone but not get personal. They were not allowed to marry.  

*Why was church reform desired? A church reform was needed because there were a lot of problems with the church. The pope had to much power so the people wanted to lower his power.  

*new agricultural technologies: There were new iron plows that were able to carve deeper into the heavy soil making it easier to farm the land. There was also a new version of the harness used by the peasants that allowed them to use horses instead of oxen to plow the field.  

*defense of castles (moats, etc): Moats is a deep wide ditch, usually filled with water, typically surrounding a fortified medieval town, fortress, or castle as a protection against assault.

*Battle of Tours: Battle of Tours occurred in 732. The battle involved Muslims and Spaniards  

*Vassals: A lord who was granted land in exchange for service and loyalty to a greater lord.   

*Peasants: A member of the class constituted by small farmers and tenants, sharecroppers, and laborers on the land where they form the main labor force in agriculture.  

*Knights: Nobles in Europe who served as a mounted warrior for a lord in the Middle Ages.  

*Lords: A man of high rank in a feudal society or in one that retains feudal forms and institutions   

*Why did the church have great power over the people?: The reason was because people were really religious. They would believe anything the Pope would say.  

*Cluniac reforms: They were reforms that were supposedly make the church better. They allowed only religious devoted people to join the church.  

*Three field system: The three field system was a system of three different work levels. The highest would do the easiest work and the lowest group would do the harder work. The middle group would do the step higher then the hardest work.

*Merchant guilds: They were groups of merchants that would work together to protect the economic interests of other people.   

*Clergy: The body of people ordained for religious service.  

*Nobles: Possessing hereditary rank in a political system or social class derived from a feudalistic stage of a country's development.   

*Charlemagne: He was also known as Charles the Great. He had one of the biggest empires in the world. He wanted all of Europe to be Christian. He was tolerant of foreigners if they were Christian.  

*Leif Erikson:  Leif Erikson was one of the greatest Vikings Ever. He discovered Iceland and Greenland. Supposedly he discovered “The New World” first. 

*Serf: A peasant bound to their lord’s land.  

*Excommunication: Exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing to obey church laws.  

*Steel plow: They were plows where the heads were made of steel instead of wood or iron. They worked a lot better and it was easier to use them.   

*Feudal system: The social system that developed in Europe. It had different levels of  people like serfs , lords, knights, and all of that.   

*Black Death- which regions most devastated population died? Result?: The regions that were most effected was the Spanish peninsula, The Roman Empire, France, and Lithuania.    

*Magna Carta: The charter of English political and civil liberties granted by King John at Runnymede in June 1215. It reduced the power of kings and queens.   

*Concordat of Worms: A treaty that was signed between the Roman Catholic Church and the Roman Emperor to end the fighting.  

*Chief goal of/ and result of the Crusades: The chief goal was between the Muslims and the Catholics. They were determined to take over Jerusalem. The result was that the Muslims kept their control over Jerusalem.  

*Reconquista: This was to take over Jerusalem again. The Catholics wanted to take it back from the Muslims.  

*Early jury system: Early Jury System was the first actual jury. People were tried and were voted innocent or guilty by a jury.  

*Conflict between emperors and popes: The Emperors thought that they should have more power then the pope because they were only head of the church. The Popes thought they deserved the power over the emperors.  

Short Answer

A. 5 reasons late Middle Ages was a time of decline: There was a lot of fighting between the church and emperors, The Bubonic Plague took out a lot of people, King John had to much power and was forced to sign the Magna Carta, people thought that if you were not part of the church you were no good, Church had to much power over people.

B. 3 long term effects of the crusades: People are still fighting over Jerusalem, there is conflict between Catholics and Muslims still, and Catholics still want to have Jerusalem.

Ch 14

Annul: To cancel

Gravity: The force the keeps objects from floating into space.

Patron: A financial supporter.  

Perspective: Artistic technique used to give drawings and paintings a three-dimensional effect.

Theocracy: Government ran by the church.

John Calvin: He was the most important reformer to follow Martin Luther. He preached predestination and set up theocracy.

Henry VIII: Henry VIII was the one that ended church rule. At first he did not believe in the Protestant revolt and later on became part of it.

Leonardo da Vinci: Da Vinci was one of the most brilliant minds of the renaissance. His most well known painting was the Mona Lisa.

Lorenzo de' Medici: Medici and his family was one of the first banking systems of the time. After the prospered they were considered one of the richest merchant, for selling wool, and bankers in Europe.

Niccolo Machiavelli: He was a diplomat and observed kings and princes in foreign courts. He wrote a book called The Prince. It was and combination of his knowledge of the past and to off a guide to rulers on how to gain and maintain power.

Heliocentric: Belief that the sun is the center of the universe.  

Humanism: the intellectual movement at the heart of the Italian Renaissance that focused on the worldly subjects rather than on religious issues.

Indulgence: pardon for sin committed during a persons life time.

Predestination: idea that God long ago determined who will gain salvation.

Recant: to give up ones views or beliefs

Copernicus: He was the one the revolutionized the way people viewed the universe.

Durer: He studied the techniques of Italian masters and employed the techniques he learned into paintings. Through his work, he helped spread Italian Renaissance.

Luther: He was the first to reform the Catholic church. He had his 95 theses saying what was wrong with the church.

Newton: He was the one that discovered gravity. He also wrote the book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy that explained the law of gravity.

Renaissance focus: The focus was to work on the science and artsy stuff of the time. Philosophers began looking into stuff that they never knew. Artist began to try new things in their art. This time was really important to the past and the present other wise we wouldn’t know a lot of things.

Printing of reformation: printing became a big part because now they were able to mass produce books because it was faster then writing them all out with their hands. This changed how everything was done

Results of Reformation: The results that people were a lot more informed of things around them. The art that came out of it was also amazing.

Causes of Renaissance: Causes were that a lot of people were having conflicts with the church. The people would argue the revolt against the church. So the people started the Renaissance to try and fix everything.


Hobbes: He had the idea that people were driven by major selfishness and greed. To assure safety they would give up freedom to the government.

Locke: His idea was that people had a natural right to life, liberty, and property. The rulers had the responsibility to do all that

Joseph II: He was the most radical enlightened despot. He was from Hapsburg and was the successor of Maria Theresa.

constitutional govt.: a government whose power is defined and limited by law.

enlightened despot: absolute ruler who uses his or her power to bring about political and social charge.

natural laws: rules that govern human nature.

natural rights: rights that belong to all humans from birth.

Physiocrat: an Enlightenment thinker who searched for natural laws to explain economics.

Bach: He was a musician that wrote complex and beautiful religious works for organ and choirs.

Diderot: He created a twenty-eight volume encyclopedia. His purpose was to change the general way of thinking.

Tom Paine: He wrote a pamphlet called Common Sense that was read by a lot of people that immigrated to North America

Rousseau: His thoughts were that people were basically good but become corrupt because of society. In an ideal society people would make the laws and follow them.

Robert Walpole: He had a time named after him called the time of Walpole. This was a time of peace and prosperity.

Baroque:ornate style of art and architecture popular in the 1600s and 1700s.

Free market: market in which goods are bought and sold without restrictions.

Laissez faire: policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference.

Salon: informal social gathering at which writers, artists, and philosophers exchanged ideas; originated in France in the 1600s

Social contract: agreement by which people give up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos.

Ch. 19

Suffrage: the right to vote 

Sans-culottes: working class men and women who called for radical action in France during the French Revolution 

Abdicate: to give up a high office 

Deficit spending: situation in which a government spends more then it takes in. 

Plebiscite: ballot in which voters have a direct say on an issue 

Blockade: the shutting off of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out  

Bourgeoisie: the middle class 

Nationalism: feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country 

Émigré: person who flees his or her country for political reasons. 

Louis XVI: he was a well meaning king but was weak and indecisive. He chose Jacques Necker, a financial wizard as an adviser. 

Clemens von Metternich: he was the prince of Austria. Metternich was a dominant figure in the Congress. He wanted to restore the status quo of things.  

Napoleon: In 1812 he pursued his dream of empire by invading Russia. His last defeat was the thought of the end of the French Revolution. 

Olympe de Gouges: She was a female journalist that demanded equal rights in her declaration of the Rights of Women. She said that women were born free and that they deserved the same rights as men get. 

Robespierre: He was a shrewd lawyer and politician that quickly rose to the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety. He adapted to Rousseau’s idea of the general will. He promoted religious toleration and sought to abolish slavery.  

Jacques Louis David: He was a leading artist at the time of all of this. He immortalized stirring events like the Tennis Court Oath and, later, the reign of Napoleon.  

who denounced Fr. Rev? Why?: When Louis XIV was decapitated. This was done because he had broken and law and had to pay for his wrong doings. 

Reign of Terror: This is when the National Assembly abolished feudalism and introduced new religious reforms. During this time Robespierre was the one that lead the Committee of Public Safety.  

Napoleon annexed who?: Napoleon annexed the Netherlands and Belgium. He also annexed parts of Italy and Germany.  

Congress of Vienna: The congress met for ten months, from September 1814 to June 1815. It was a brilliant gathering of European leaders.  

Ch. 23

Alexander II: He came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean War. After a long time of people pushing reforms at him from all sides he finally gave in for the reforms. 

Francis Joseph: He was an eighteen year old boy that inherited the throne. He ruled until the year 1916. 

Giuseppe Garibaldi: He was a long time nationalist and an ally of Mazzini. He wanted to create an Italian Republic.   

Otto von Bismarck: He came from Prussia’s junker class and became a leading person of the time. In 1862 King William I made him chancellor.  

William II: He succeeded his grandfather as Kaiser. He was supremely confident with his abilities and wished to put his own stamp on Germany

Camillo Cavour: He was appointed a spot as prime minister. He came from a noble family but favored liberal goals. 

Anarchist: person who wants to abolish all government 

Refugee: person who flees his or her homeland to seek safety somewhere else. 

Pogrom: violent attack in Jewish community 

Zemstvo: local elected assembly set up in Russia under Alexander II

Ch. 20
Enclosure- Enclosure is the process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers. As millions of acres were enclosed farm outputs rose.

Factories- Factories brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods. Once the factories were created a new way to transfer the goods faster was needed.

Turnpike- Turnpikes were privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them. Canals were also dug to link rivers or connect inland towns to coastal ports.

Urbanization- Urbanization is the movement of people to cities. There were changes in farming, soaring population growth, and an ever-increasing demand for workers that led masses of people to migrate from a coal or iron mines mushroomed into cities.

Utilitarianism- Jeremy Bentham was preaching Untilitarianism which is the idea that the goal of society should be the greatest happiness for the greatest number of its citizens. He said that laws or actions should be judged by their utility.

Socialism- Under socialism private individuals would won and operate the farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses the produced and distributed goods. Socialism grew out of the Enlightenment faith in progress, its belief in the basic goodness of human nature, and its concern for social justice.

Communism- Communism is a form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers and employees as inevitable. Karl Marx theorized that economics were the driving forces in history.

Proletariat- The Have-nots or the working class were known as the proletariats. According to Marx, the modern class struggle pitted the bourgeoisie against the proletariat, he predicted that in the end the proletariat would triumph.

Michael Faraday- Faraday was an inventor of the Dynamo which created electricity. Thus invention led to new discoveries with electricity.

John Wesley - Wesley helped to spread Methodism which was a new religious movements. He stressed the need for a personal sense of faith and urged Christians to improve their lot by adopting sober, moral ways.

Karl Marx - Karl Marx was a German Philosopher that condemned the ideas of the Utopians as unrealistic idealism. He put forward a new theory of idealistic socialism which he claimed was based on a scientific study of history.

Thomas Malthus- Thomas Malthus believed in Laissez- Faire economics. He tried to understand the staggering changes taking place in the early industrial age.

John Stuart Mill- Mill was a Utilitarian that argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain. He reexamined the idea that unrestricted competition in the free market was always good.

James Watt- In 1769 James Watt improved improved of the steam engine. His steam engines would become the vital power source of the early industrial revolution.

Abraham Darby- Abraham Darby began to use coal instead of wood for smelting iron or separating it from its ore. His experiments led him to produce better-quality and cheaper iron.

David Ricardo- Ricardo saw the free market as an opportunity for capitalist entrepreneurs to succeed. As capitalists and often employers, liberals had different goals from those of workers laboring in factories, mines and other enterprises of the early industrial Revolution.

Jeremy Bentham- Jeremy Bentham was a Utilitarian that believed that the laws or actions should be judged by their utility. He strongly supported individual freedom.

Robert Owen- Robert owen was a socialist that believed in a Utopia in which all work is shared and all property was owned in common. They felt that if there was no difference between the rich and the poor that fighting among the people would disappear.

Britain's population growth- Declining Death rates greatly increased the population, Birth rates however did not increase very much. Better eating habits were practiced, and some deadly diseases had faded away by this time, these things all made the population increase drastically.

Importance of coal to Industrialization- Iron was needed for machines and steam engines, and to make Iron a new fuel was needed in order to make the metal faster and easier. Coal was used as the new fuel to power the making of iron and machines.

Agricultural Revolution- The Industrial revolution was partially made possible by a change in the farming fields of Western Europe. The Dutch built new Earthen walls known as dikes to reclaim land from the sea, they combined smaller fields to make larger more fertile ones.

Textile industry- With a bigger population more clothing was needed at a faster rate, many new inventions were made to increase the speed at which cloth was weaved. Some of the inventions that added to the Textile industry were the Flying Shuttle invented by John Kay, and later the water frame was invented to speed up the spinning process.  

Laissez faire economics (Adam Smith)- The Prophet of Laissez-Faire economics was Adam Smith who believed that a free market would eventually help everyone, not just the rich. The Free market is the unregulated exchange of goods and services.
Ch. 21
Ideology- Ideology is the systems of thought and belief. The clashing of people with opposing ideologies plunged Europe into a period of turmoil that lasted more than 30 years.

Universal manhood suffrage- Liberals threw their support behind this principle that gave all adult men the right to vote. Before this right was empowered only men that owned property or with a financial stake in society had a right to vote.

Autonomy- The Serbs achieved autonomy or the power to self-rule within the Ottoman Empire. With the struggle to achieve autonomy Serbian identity was restored with the creation of new literature and culture.

El Grito de Dolores- El Grito de Dolores is “The cry of Dolores,” this was a speech made by Father Miguel Hidalgo of Dolores. It called the people of Mexico to fight for their freedom and independence.

February Days- When the government took steps to silence critics and prevent public meetings, angry crowds took to the streets. A number of demonstrators clashed with royal troops and were killed fighting for a better economy.

Frankfurt Assembly-Throughout 1848 delegates from many German states met in the Frankfurt Assembly. They wanted to create a constitution for Germany for the whole land.

Simon Bolivar- Bolivar led the struggle to liberate northern South America from Spain. He was a wealthy Latin American that was sent to Europe to finish his education.

Miguel Hidalgo-  Father Hidalgo presided over the poor and rural parish of Dolores. He Called the people of Mexico to fight for independence and liberty.

Louis Kossuth- Kossuth led Hungarian nationalists, they demanded an independent government. They called for an end to serfdom and a written constitution to protect basic rights.

Tupac Amaru- Amaru organized a revolt, he caused chaos in South America.
His was the strongest challenge made by the native Americans.

Louis XVIII- The Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the French throne, he prudently issued a constitution, the charter of French liberties. This created a two-house legislature and allowed limited freedom of the press.

John Stuart Mill- Argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain. He said that the idea of free-market favored the strong over the weak.

Toussaint L' Ouverture- Toussaint was a well education African that could read and speak French and African. He became the leader of the slave revolts with his knowledge of Military and Language.

Louis Napoleon- Became the new leader of France as the new Napoleon, he attracted the working classes by presenting himself as a man who cared about social issues such as poverty. He used his power as a steppingstone to greater power and by 1852 he had proclaimed himself emperor.

Louis Philippe- Philippe ruled at a time of great economic growth.
He however embarked on foreign adventures that brought down his empire.

Clemens Von Metternich- Metternich had dominated part of Austrian politics for more than 30 years, he tried to suppress the students who took to the streets. When Workers rose, however; to support the students, Metternich resigned and fled in disguise.

Pedro- When Napoleon’s armies conquered Portugal, the royal family fled to Brazil, they introduced many reforms including free trade during their stay. When they returned Dom Pedro was left to rule Brazil, an independent Brazil.

Revolts in Austrian empire- Revolt first broke out in Vienna, taking the government by surprise. Metternich tried to suppress the revolts, but when more people joined in he fled.

Goals of nationalists- Nationalism was an outgrowth of the enlightenment and the French Revolution, it ignited a number of revolts against established rule. They wanted to Unify and gain independence for people with a common national heritage.

Conservative ideology in Europe- Monarchs and members of their government supported the political and social order that had come under attack during the French Revolution.
Ch. 22

Interchangeable parts- the invention of interchangeable parts was very important to the industrial revolution; interchangeable parts where identical components that could be used in place of one another. This simplified both assembly and repair.

Assembly line- Manufacturers introduced another new method of production, the assembly line. Workers on an assembly line add parts to a product that moves along a belt from one work station to the next.

Corporation- A corporation was a system of businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock. Stockholders risk only the amount they invest in the company and cannot be held personally responsible for any debts of corporation.
Cartel- A cartel is an association to fix prices, set production quotas, and divide up markets. Later shippers came close to setting freight rates on the sea lines of the world.

Women's suffrage- In Europe, in the late 1800’s groups dedication the votes for women Women’s suffrage emerged. Among me, some liberals and socialists supported women’s suffrage, however; in general suffragists faced intense opposition.

Racism- Racism is the belief that one racial group is superior to another.
By the late 1800’s many Europeans and Americans claimed that the success of western civilization was due to the supremacy of the white race.

Social gospel- The social gospel was a movement that urged Christians to social service. They campaigned for reforms in housing, health care, and education.

Romanticism- Romanticism shaped western literature and arts; writers, artists and composers rebelled against the Enlightenment emphasis on reason. They wanted to excite strong emotions through their work.

Realism- Realism I the attempt to represent the world as it was, without the sentiment associated with romanticism. Realists often looked at the harsher side of life in cities or villages. 

Impressionism- Impressionism was the practice of trying to capture the first fleeting impression made by a scene or object on the viewer’s eyes. They decided not to try to hide their brush strokes but instead emphasize them.

Social Darwinism- Although Darwin himself never promoted any social ideas; some thinkers used Darwin’s theories to support their own beliefs about society.
Social Darwinism was applying the idea of survival of the fittest to war and economic competition.

Darwin- In 1859 after years of research Charles Darwin published On the Origin Species in it he argued that all forms of life had evolved into their present state over millions of years. He tried to explain the long slow process of evolution, he offered the idea of competition to support the increasing demand of available food.

Joseph Lister- Lister was an English Surgeon that discovered how antiseptics prevented infection. He insisted that surgeons wash their hands before operating and sterilize their instruments.

Factory life- People that had been used to open areas and a change in daily routines were subjected to the redundant and low pay of factories. Cities sprung up around the factories and population boomed along with the faster method of production.