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Luan Tran

Mr. Haskell

World History

October 13, 2005


*Peasant: A member of the class constituted by small farmers and tenants, sharecroppers,

  and laborers on the land where they form the main labor force in agriculture.  


*Usury: Practice of lending money at interest.


*Capital: Money for investment.


*Tithe: Payment to a church equal to one tenth of a person’s income.


*Fief: An estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty.


*Chivalry: Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages.


*Charter: A written document that set out the rights and privileges of a town.


*Troubadour: Wandering poet in Europe in the Middle Ages.


*Manor Economy: The economy of a lord’s estate.  


*How monks and nuns lived: Monks and nuns lived their lives under a vow. Their vow

  was to be nice to everyone but not get personal. They were not allowed to marry.


*Why was church reform desired? A church reform was needed because there were a lot

  of problems with the church. The pope had to much power so the people wanted t

  lower his power.


*new agricultural technologies: There were new iron plows that were able to carve

  deeper into the heavy soil making it easier to farm the land. There was also a new

  version of the harness used by the peasants that allowed them to use horses instead of

  oxen to plow the field.


*defense of castles (moats, etc): Moats is a deep wide ditch, usually filled with water,

  typically surrounding a fortified medieval town, fortress, or castle as a protection against



*Battle of Tours: Battle of Tours occurred in 732. The battle involved Muslims and



*Vassals: A lord who was granted land in exchange for service and loyalty to a greater



*Peasants: A member of the class constituted by small farmers and tenants, sharecroppers,

  and laborers on the land where they form the main labor force in agriculture.


*Knights: Nobles in Europe who served as a mounted warrior for a lord in the Middle



*Lords: A man of high rank in a feudal society or in one that retains feudal forms and



*Why did the church have great power over the people?: The reason was because people

  were really religious. They would believe anything the Pope would say.


*Cluniac reforms: They were reforms that were supposedly make the church better. They

  allowed only religious devoted people to join the church.


*Three field system: The three field system was a system of three different work levels.

  The highest would do the easiest work and the lowest group would do the harder work.

  The middle group would do the step higher then the hardest work.

*Merchant guilds: They were groups of merchants that would work together to protect

  the economic interests of other people.  


*Clergy: The body of people ordained for religious service.  


*Nobles: Possessing hereditary rank in a political system or social class derived from a

  feudalistic stage of a country's development.  


*Charlemagne: He was also known as Charles the Great. He had one of the biggest

  empires in the world. He wanted all of Europe to be Christian. He was tolerant of

  foreigners if they were Christian.


*Leif Erikson:  Leif Erikson was one of the greatest Vikings Ever. He discovered Iceland

  and Greenland. Supposedly he discovered “The New World” first.


*Serf: A peasant bound to their lord’s land.


*Excommunication: Exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing

  to obey church laws.


*Steel plow: They were plows where the heads were made of steel instead of wood or

  iron. They worked a lot better and it was easier to use them.  


*Feudal system: The social system that developed in Europe. It had different levels of

  people like serfs , lords, knights, and all of that.  



*Black Death- which regions most devastated population died? Result?: The regions that

  were most effected was the Spanish peninsula, The Roman Empire, France, and



*Magna Carta: The charter of English political and civil liberties granted by King John at

  Runnymede in June 1215. It reduced the power of kings and queens.  


*Concordat of Worms: A treaty that was signed between the Roman Catholic Church and

  the Roman Emperor to end the fighting.


*Chief goal of/ and result of the Crusades: The chief goal was between the Muslims and

  the Catholics. They were determined to take over Jerusalem. The result was that the

  Muslims kept their control over Jerusalem.


*Reconquista: This was to take over Jerusalem again. The Catholics wanted to take it

  back from the Muslims.


*Early jury system: Early Jury System was the first actual jury. People were tried and

  were voted innocent or guilty by a jury.


*Conflict between emperors and popes: The Emperors thought that they should have

  more power then the pope because they were only head of the church. The Popes

  thought they deserved the power over the emperors.


Short Answer

A. 5 reasons late Middle Ages was a time of decline: There was a lot of fighting between

    the church and emperors, The Bubonic Plague took out a lot of people, King John had

    to much power and was forced to sign the Magna Carta, people thought that if you
    were not part of the church you were no good, Church had to much power over people.


B. 3 long term effects of the crusades: People are still fighting over Jerusalem, there is
    conflict between Catholics and Muslims still, and Catholics still want to have