Chapter 25 and 26 Outline
I. The New Imperialism
A. Imperialism: the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural
life of another country or region.
B. European imperialism did not begin in the 1800s.
C. By the 1800s,
II. Motives of the New the New Imperialists.
A. Like other key developments in world history, the new imperialism exploded out of
combination of causes.
B. The Industrial Revolution created needs that spurred overseas expansions.
C. Closely linked to economic motives were political and military issues.
III. Down the Barrel of a Gun
A. Western imperialism succeeded for a number of reasons.
B. Europeans had the advantages of strong economies, well-organized governments,
and powerful armies and navies.
C. Africans and Asians strongly resisted western expansion.
IV. Forms of Imperial Control
A. The new imperialism took several forms.
B. Some areas, imperial powers established colonies.
C. Sphere of Influence: an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive
investment or trading privileges.
V. On the Eve of the Scramble
A. In the early
1800s, westerners knew little about
B. In the later
1800s, however, European nations sent explorers to
became involved in a “scramble” for African colonies.
C. on the grassy
forces for change.
VI. The Great Scramble Begins
activities in the
C. Leopold and
other wealthy Belgians, meantime, exploited the riches of the
including its copper, rubber, and ivory.
VII. Carving Up a Continent
A. In the 1800s,
B. Britain had
C. Other European powers joined the scramble, in part to bolster their national image,
in part to further economic growth and influence.
VIII. Africans Fight Back
A. Europeans met armed resistance across the continent.
B. Another woman who became a military leader was Nehanda, of the Shona in
resistance was mounted by
IX. Ferment in the Muslim World
A. The Muslim world
extended from western
B. In the 1700s and early 1800s, reform movements sprang up across the Muslim
C. Added to internal ferment and decay, the old Muslim empires faced western
X. Challenges to the
A. At its height,
B. As ideas of
nationalism spread from
challenges within the multi-ethnic
XI. Efforts at Reform
A. Since the late 1700s, Ottoman rulers had seen the need for reform.
B. The reforms brought better medical care and revitalized farming.
C. Genocide: a deliberate attempt to destroy an entire religious or ethnic group.
XII. Egypt Seeks to Modernize
A. Egypt in 1800 was a semi-independent Ottoman province.
B. Muhammad Ali is
sometimes called the “father of modern
C. Britain quickly
expanded its influence over
XIII. Iran and the Western Powers
A. Like the
B. Reform, however,
did not save
C. Concessions or economic rights granted to foreign powers, outraged Iranian
XIV. The East India Company
A. In the early 1600s, the British East India Company obtained trading rights on the
fringe of the Mughal empire.
B. The British took advantage of this ferment by playing off rival princes against each
C. The East India
Company’s main goal in
officials often got very rich.
XV. The Sepoy Rebellion
A. Indians from all social classes resented British interference and domination.
B. In the 1850s, the East India Company took several unpopular steps.
C. The final insult came in 1857, when the British issued new rifles to the sepoys.
XVI. The “Brightest Jewel”
A. After 1858,
Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in
B. Cash Crops: crops that can be sold in the world market.
C. The British introduced medical improvements.
XVII. Indians and British: Viewing Two Cultures
A. During the age of imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each
B. In the early 1800s, Ram Mohun Roy combined both views.
C. The British
disagreed among themselves about
XVIII. Growing Nationalism
A. During the years of British rule, a class of western-educated Indians emerged.
B. As it turned out, the exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect.
C. By the early 1900s, protests and resistance to British rule increased.
XIX. The Trade Issue
A. Balance of Trade: Exporting more then you import.
B. Trade Deficit: Buying more then you are selling.
C. By the 1700s,
two developments were underway that would transform
relations with the western world.
XX. Internal Pressures
A. By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline.
B. As poverty and misery increased, peasants rebelled.
C. The Taiping
rebels won control of large parts of
XXI. Reform Efforts
A. By the mid-1800s, educated Chinese were divided over the need to adopt western
B. The imperial court was a center of conservative opposition.
C. The island
XXII. The Empire Crumbles
A. As the century
B. Antiforeign feeling finally exploded in the Boxer Uprising.
C. In 1900, the
Boxers attacked foreign communities across
I. Strains in Tokugawa
A. The Tokugawa shoguns, who had gained power in 1600, reimposed centralized
B. For 215 years,
C. Like China,
II. Opening Up
A. While the shogun faced troubles at home, disturbing news reached him from abroad.
B. Then in July 1853, a fleet of well-armed American ships commanded by
Mathew Perry sailed into
C. Foreign pressure deepened the social and economic unrest.
III. Fukuzawa Yukichi Travels Abroad
A. An early Japanese visitor to the West was Fukuzawa Yukichi.
B. As the
Kanrin-Maru set sail for the
C. After 37 stormy
days at sea, Kanrin-Maru reached
IV. Reforms Under Meiji
A. The Meiji reformers faced an enormous task.
B. The reformers wanted to create a strong central government, equal to those of
C. Japan then established a western-style bureaucracy with separate departments to
supervise the finance, the army, the navy, and education.
V. Competition for Empire
A. As with western
B. In 1894, rivalry
C. Ten years later,
VI. Korea: A Focus of Competition
rivalries put the spotlight on
B. Although Korea had long been influenced by its powerful Chinese neighbor, it had
its own traditions and government.
C. By the 1800s,
been influenced by both civilizations.
B. In the 1600s, the Dutch East India Company gained control of the fabled riches of
C. The French meanwhile were building an empire on the Southeast Asian mainland.
VIII. Thailand Services
A. Sandwiched between
B. Although King
Mongkut had to accept some unequal treaties, he set
road to modernization.
C. In the end, both
or neutral zone, between them.
IX. Imperialism and Nationalism in the
A. In the 1500s,
B. The United
States became involved in the fate of the
C. Bitterly disappointed, Filipino nationalists renewed their struggle.
X. Western Powers in the Pacific
A. In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in the islands of the
B. In 1878, the
such as extraterritoriality and a naval station.
C. By 1900, the
island in the Pacific.
XI. The Canadian Pattern
B. Native Americans formed another strand of the Canadian heritage.
C. To ease ethnic
XII. Europeans in
A. The Dutch in the
1600s were the first Europeans to reach
B. Like most
regions claimed by imperialist powers,
by other people.
C. Penal Colony: a place to send people convicted of crimes.
A. Far to the
B. Unlike Australia, where the Aborigines were spread thinly across the large continent.
C. Like settlers in
XIV. Problems Facing the New Nations
A. Simón Bolívar
had hoped to create strong ties among the nations
B. Many problems had their origins in colonial rule.
C. Caudillos: assembled private armies to resist central government.
XV. The Economics of Dependence
A. Under colonial
rule, mercantilist policies made
B. Economic Dependence: a well supported country supporting a less developed
C. In the 1800s,
foreign goods flooded into
foreigners and for handful of local business people.
XVI. Mexico’s Struggle for Stability
A. During the 1800s, each Latin American country followed its own course.
B. Between 1833 and 1855, an ambitious and cunning caudillo, Antonio López de
Santa Anna, gained and lost power many times.
C. Peonage: Paying workers in advance and then making them work longer until they
paid them back.
XVII. Colossus of the North
A. As nations like
B. In the 1820s,
XVIII. New Economic Patterns
A. During the Age of Imperialism, a truly global economy emerged.
B. The demands of the new world economy disrupted traditional local economies in
C. Western capitalists developed plantations and mines but relied on a steady supply of
local labor to work them.
XIX. Cultural Impact
A. During the Age of Imperialism, Europeans were convinced of their own superiority
and believed they had a mission to “civilize” the world.
B. Western Culture was usually spread by missionaries who built schools and hospitals.
C. Archaeologists and historians slowly unearthed evidence about ancient civilizations
previously unknown to the West.
XX. New Political Tensions
A. Imperialism had global political consequences, as you have seen.
B. By the early 1900s, however, resistance to imperialism was taking a new course.
C. At the same time, the competition for empire was fueling tensions among western