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Luan Tran

January 13, 2006

Period 3

 

Chapter 25 and 26 Outline

 

Chapter 25

I. The New Imperialism

   A. Imperialism: the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural

        life of another country or region.

   B. European imperialism did not begin in the 1800s.

   C. By the 1800s, Europe had developed politically and economically.

 

II. Motives of the New the New Imperialists.

   A. Like other key developments in world history, the new imperialism exploded out of

        combination of causes.

   B. The Industrial Revolution created needs that spurred overseas expansions.

   C. Closely linked to economic motives were political and military issues.

 

III. Down the Barrel of a Gun

   A. Western imperialism succeeded for a number of reasons.

   B. Europeans had the advantages of strong economies, well-organized governments,

        and powerful armies and navies.

   C. Africans and Asians strongly resisted western expansion.

 

IV. Forms of Imperial Control

   A. The new imperialism took several forms.

   B. Some areas, imperial powers established colonies.

   C. Sphere of Influence: an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive

        investment or trading privileges.

 

V. On the Eve of the Scramble

   A. In the early 1800s, westerners knew little about Africa.

   B. In the later 1800s, however, European nations sent explorers to Africa and later

        became involved in a “scramble” for African colonies.

   C. on the grassy plains of West Africa, an Islamic reform movement had unleashed

        forces for change.

 

VI. The Great Scramble Begins

   A. Shortly afterward, Stanley took a new assignment.

   B. Leopold’s activities in the Congo set off a scramble by other European nations.

   C. Leopold and other wealthy Belgians, meantime, exploited the riches of the Congo,

        including its copper, rubber, and ivory.

 

 

 

VII. Carving Up a Continent

   A. In the 1800s, France took a giant share of Africa.

   B. Britain had acquired the Cape Colony in Southern Africa from the Dutch in 1815.

   C. Other European powers joined the scramble, in part to bolster their national image,

        in part to further economic growth and influence.

 

VIII. Africans Fight Back

   A. Europeans met armed resistance across the continent.

   B. Another woman who became a military leader was Nehanda, of the Shona in

        Zimbabwe.

   C. Successful resistance was mounted by Ethiopia.

 

IX. Ferment in the Muslim World

   A. The Muslim world extended from western Africa to Southeast Asia.

   B. In the 1700s and early 1800s, reform movements sprang up across the Muslim

        World.

   C. Added to internal ferment and decay, the old Muslim empires faced western

        imperialism.

 

X. Challenges to the Ottoman Empire

   A. At its height, the Ottoman Empire had extended across the Middle East, North

        Africa, and parts of Eastern Europe.

   B. As ideas of nationalism spread from Western Europe, internal revolts posted

        constant challenges within the multi-ethnic Ottoman Empire.

   C. Britain, France, and Russia each sought to benefit fro the slow crumbling of the

        Ottoman-held empire.

 

XI. Efforts at Reform

   A. Since the late 1700s, Ottoman rulers had seen the need for reform.

   B. The reforms brought better medical care and revitalized farming.

   C. Genocide: a deliberate attempt to destroy an entire religious or ethnic group.

 

XII. Egypt Seeks to Modernize

   A. Egypt in 1800 was a semi-independent Ottoman province.

   B. Muhammad Ali is sometimes called the “father of modern Egypt.”

   C. Britain quickly expanded its influence over Egypt.

 

XIII. Iran and the Western Powers

   A. Like the Ottoman empire, Iran faced major challenges in the 1800s.

   B. Reform, however, did not save Iran from western imperialism.

   C. Concessions or economic rights granted to foreign powers, outraged Iranian

        nationalists.

 

 

 

 

XIV. The East India Company

   A. In the early 1600s, the British East India Company obtained trading rights on the

        fringe of the Mughal empire.

   B. The British took advantage of this ferment by playing off rival princes against each

        other.

   C. The East India Company’s main goal in India was to make money, and leading

        officials often got very rich.

 

XV. The Sepoy Rebellion

   A. Indians from all social classes resented British interference and domination.

   B. In the 1850s, the East India Company took several unpopular steps.

   C. The final insult came in 1857, when the British issued new rifles to the sepoys.

 

XVI. The “Brightest Jewel”

   A. After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India.

   B. Cash Crops: crops that can be sold in the world market.

   C. The British introduced medical improvements.

 

XVII. Indians and British: Viewing Two Cultures

   A. During the age of imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each

        other’s culture.

   B. In the early 1800s, Ram Mohun Roy combined both views.

   C. The British disagreed among themselves about India.

 

XVIII. Growing Nationalism

   A. During the years of British rule, a class of western-educated Indians emerged.

   B. As it turned out, the exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect.

   C. By the early 1900s, protests and resistance to British rule increased.

 

XIX. The Trade Issue

   A. Balance of Trade: Exporting more then you import.

   B. Trade Deficit: Buying more then you are selling.

   C. By the 1700s, two developments were underway that would transform China’s

       relations with the western world.

 

XX. Internal Pressures

   A. By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline.

   B. As poverty and misery increased, peasants rebelled.

   C. The Taiping rebels won control of large parts of China.

 

XXI. Reform Efforts

   A. By the mid-1800s, educated Chinese were divided over the need to adopt western

        ways.

   B. The imperial court was a center of conservative opposition.

   C. The island nation of Japan modernized rapidly after 1868.

 

XXII. The Empire Crumbles

   A. As the century ended, China was in turmoil.

   B. Antiforeign feeling finally exploded in the Boxer Uprising.

   C. In 1900, the Boxers attacked foreign communities across China.

 

Chapter 26

I. Strains in Tokugawa Japan

   A. The Tokugawa shoguns, who had gained power in 1600, reimposed centralized

        feudalism, closed Japan to foreigners.

   B. For 215 years, Japan developed in near isolation.

   C. Like China, Japan drifted into decline in the 1800s.

 

II. Opening Up Japan

   A. While the shogun faced troubles at home, disturbing news reached him from abroad.

   B. Then in July 1853, a fleet of well-armed American ships commanded by

        Commodore Mathew Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay.

   C. Foreign pressure deepened the social and economic unrest.

 

III. Fukuzawa Yukichi Travels Abroad

   A. An early Japanese visitor to the West was Fukuzawa Yukichi.

   B. As the Kanrin-Maru set sail for the United States, Fukuzawa was filled with pride.

   C. After 37 stormy days at sea, Kanrin-Maru reached San Francisco.

 

IV. Reforms Under Meiji

   A. The Meiji reformers faced an enormous task.

   B. The reformers wanted to create a strong central government, equal to those of

        western powers.

   C. Japan then established a western-style bureaucracy with separate departments to

        supervise the finance, the army, the navy, and education.

 

V. Competition for Empire

   A. As with western industrial powers, Japan’s economic needs fed its imperialist

        desires.

   B. In 1894, rivalry between Japan and China over Korea led to war.

   C. Ten years later, Japan successfully challenged Russia, its rival for power in Korea

        and Manchuria.

 

VI. Korea: A Focus of Competition

   A. Imperialist rivalries put the spotlight on Korea.

   B. Although Korea had long been influenced by its powerful Chinese neighbor, it had

       its own traditions and government.

   C. By the 1800s, Korea faced growing pressure from outsiders.

 

 

 

 

VII. Colonizing Southeast Asia

   A. Southeast Asia commanded the sea lanes between India and China and had long

        been influenced by both civilizations.

   B. In the 1600s, the Dutch East India Company gained control of the fabled riches of

        the Moluccas, or Spice Islands.

   C. The French meanwhile were building an empire on the Southeast Asian mainland.

 

VIII. Thailand Services

   A. Sandwiched between British-ruled Burma and French Indochina lay the kingdom of

        Siam.

   B. Although King Mongkut had to accept some unequal treaties, he set Siam on the

        road to modernization.

   C. In the end, both Britain and France saw the advantage of making Thailand a buffer,

        or neutral zone, between them.

 

IX. Imperialism and Nationalism in the Philippines

   A. In the 1500s, Spain had seized the Philippines and extended its rule over the islands.

   B. The United States became involved in the fate of the Philippines almost b accident.

   C. Bitterly disappointed, Filipino nationalists renewed their struggle.

 

X. Western Powers in the Pacific

   A. In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in the islands of the

        Pacific.

   B. In 1878, the United States secured an “unequal treaty” from Samoa, gaining rights

        such as extraterritoriality and a naval station.

   C. By 1900, the United States, Britain, France, and Germany had claimed nearly every

        island in the Pacific.

 

XI. The Canadian Pattern

   A. Canada’s first European rulers were the French.

   B. Native Americans formed another strand of the Canadian heritage.

   C. To ease ethnic tensions, Britain passed the Canada Act in 1791.

 

XII. Europeans in Australia

   A. The Dutch in the 1600s were the first Europeans to reach Australia -- the world’s

        smallest continent.

   B. Like most regions claimed by imperialist powers, Australia had long been inhabited

       by other people.

   C. Penal Colony: a place to send people convicted of crimes.

 

XIII. New Zealand

   A. Far to the southeast of Australia lies New Zealand.

   B. Unlike Australia, where the Aborigines were spread thinly across the large continent.

   C. Like settlers in Australia and Canada, white New Zealanders sought self-rule.

 

 

XIV. Problems Facing the New Nations

   A. Simón Bolívar had hoped to create strong ties among the nations Latin America.

   B. Many problems had their origins in colonial rule.

   C. Caudillos: assembled private armies to resist central government.

 

XV. The Economics of Dependence

   A. Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically

        dependent on Spain and Portugal. 

   B. Economic Dependence: a well supported country supporting a less developed

        country.

   C. In the 1800s, foreign goods flooded into Latin America, creating large profits for

        foreigners and for handful of local business people.

 

XVI. Mexico’s Struggle for Stability

   A. During the 1800s, each Latin American country followed its own course.

   B. Between 1833 and 1855, an ambitious and cunning caudillo, Antonio López de

        Santa Anna, gained and lost power many times.

   C. Peonage: Paying workers in advance and then making them work longer until they

        paid them back.

 

XVII. Colossus of the North

   A. As nations like Mexico tried to build stable governments, a neighboring republic, the

        United States, was expanding across North America.

   B. In the 1820s, Spain plotted to recover its American colonies.

   C. American investments in Latin America soared in the early 1900s.

 

XVIII. New Economic Patterns

   A. During the Age of Imperialism, a truly global economy emerged.

   B. The demands of the new world economy disrupted traditional local economies in

        Africa and Asia.

   C. Western capitalists developed plantations and mines but relied on a steady supply of

        local labor to work them.

 

XIX. Cultural Impact

   A. During the Age of Imperialism, Europeans were convinced of their own superiority

        and believed they had a mission to “civilize” the world.

   B. Western Culture was usually spread by missionaries who built schools and hospitals.

   C. Archaeologists and historians slowly unearthed evidence about ancient civilizations

        previously unknown to the West.

 

XX. New Political Tensions

   A. Imperialism had global political consequences, as you have seen.

   B. By the early 1900s, however, resistance to imperialism was taking a new course.

   C. At the same time, the competition for empire was fueling tensions among western

        powers.