Chapter 19 Outline
I. The Old Regime
A. In the Middle Ages, the church had exerted great influence throughout Christian
B. Many nobles hated absolutism and resented the royal bureaucracy that employed
middleclass men in positions once reserved for the aristocracy.
C. Bourgeoisie: middle class
II. A Financial Crisis
A. Deficit Spending: a government spending more money than it takes in.
B. To solve the financial crisis, the government would have to increase taxes, reduce
expenses, or both.
C. The heirs of Louis XIV were not the right men to solve the crisis.
III. The King Takes Action
A. As 1788 closed,
B. The cahiers testified to boiling class resentments.
C. Delegates to the Estates General from the Third estate were elected.
IV. Storming the Bastille
A. On July 14,
B. The commander of the Bastille refused to open the gates and opened fire on the
C. When told of the attack, Louis XVI asked, “Is it a revolt?”
V. Revolts in
A. The political crisis of 1789 was punctuated by the worst famine in memory.
B. In such desperate times, rumors ran wild, setting off what was later called the “Great
C. As the capital
and chief city of
VI. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
A. Peasants uprising and the storming of the Bastille stampeded the National Assembly
B. In late August, as a first step toward writing a constitution, the Assembly issued the
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.
C. The Declaration further proclaimed that all male citizens were equal before the law.
A. Angry Mobs were not a new sight
B. Much of the Women’s anger was towards the queen Marie Antoinette.
C. The women of
VIII. A Time of Reform
A. The National
Assembly soon followed the king to
B. To pay off the huge government debt, the Assembly voted to take over and sell
C. Many Bishops and priests refused to accept the Civil Constitution.
VIV. Reaction Outside
A. Events in
B. Emigres: nobles,
clergy, and others who had fled revolutionary
C. Louis XIV’s failed fight brought further hostile rumblings from abroad.
X. War at Home and Abroad
A. In October 1791, the newly elected Legislative Assembly took office.
B. Sans-culottes: working-class men and women
C. Within the Legislative Assembly, hostile factions feuded for power.
XI. Downfall of the Monarchy
A. War heightened
B. Battles disasters inflamed revolutionaries who thought the king was in a league with
C. Suffrage: the right to vote.
XII. The Convention Under Siege
A. By early 1793,
B. To deal with the
C. Spurred by revolutionary fever, French recruits marched off to defend the republic.
XIII. Reaction and Directory
A. In reaction to the Terror, the revolution entered a third stage.
B. The Constitution of 1795 set up a five-man Directory and a two-house legislature
elected by male citizens of property.
C. The Directory held power from 1795 to 1799.
XIV. Women in the Revolution
A. Women of all classes participated in the revolution from the very beginning.
B. Many women were disappointed when the Declaration of the Rights of Man did not
grant equal citizenship to women.
C. The government made divorce easier, a move aimed at weakening Church authority.
XV. Changes in Daily Life
A. By 1799, the 10
year old French Revolution had dramatically changed
B. New symbols such as the red “liberty caps” and the tricolor confirmed the liberty
and equality of all male citizens.
C. Nationalism: an aggressive feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country.
XVII. The Man From
Buonaparte was born on the French0ruled
B. During the turmoil of the revolution, he rose quickly in the army.
C. Plebiscite: ballot in which voters say yes or no to an issue.
XVIII. France Under Napoleon
A. During the consulate and empire, Napoleon consolidated power, strengthening the
B. To restore prosperity, Napoleon modernized finance.
C. Among Napoleon’s most lasting reforms was a new law code, popularity called the
XIV. Subduing an Empire
A. From 1804 to 1814, Napoleon furthered his reputation on the battlefield.
B. As a military leader, Napoleon valued rapid movements and made effective use of
his large armies.
C. Annexed: added out right.
XV. Downfall of Napoleon
A. Abdicated: stepped down from power
B. The restoration of Louis XVIII did not go smoothly.
C. Napoleon died in
1821, but his legend live on in
XVI. The Congress of
A. After Waterloo, diplomats and heads of state again sat down at the Congress of
B. The Congress met for 10 months, from September 1814 to June 1815.
C. While the entertainment kept thousands of smaller players busy, the real work fell to
von Matternich of
A. Despite clashes
and controversies, the diplomats of
framework for peace.
B. The peacemakers
redrew the map of
C. Legitimacy: restoring hereditary monarchies.