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Section 1 - The Changing Political Climate
1. The Great Liberation
A. Nationalist movements took root in Africa, Asia and the Middle east, and they resented Imperialist rule.
B. Britain, France and other powers tried to hold on to there empires, like India, but were too exhausted by the recent war and wanted no more conflict.
C. Nearly 100 countries emerged during this "great liberation". All new countries were determined to reach modernization.

2. The Cold War Goes Global
A. The US and Soviet Union competed for influence in the newly developing countries. Many new nations favored socialism. Nonaligned - not allied to either side of the Cold war.
B. Sometimes the Cold War would erupt into shooting wars especially in Asia. Both Korea and Vietnam were torn by the brutal conflicts in which the US and Soviet Union played large roles.
C. The Cold War ended in 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed. Within many nations, ethnic groups pushed for independence.

3. New Nations Seek Stability
A. In Africa, nations inherited random colonial borders that mixed together people with different languages, religions and ethnic identities.
B. New nations wrote constitutions modeled after western democracies. Authoritarian leaders would lead the move for independence and then take over.
C. Nations that had been ruled by dictators or a single party soon held multiparty elections.

4. The Shrinking Globe
A. Interdependence - dependence on countries for goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world. Transportation and communication systems have made the world increasingly interdependent.
B. The United Nations played a key role in the decolonization. Since then it has played peacekeeper. The World Bank and International Monetary Fund make loans to countries to develop.
C. The Importance of global trade was recognized by a series of international agreements known as the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). It tried to establish fair trade policies for all nations. The Group of Seven - seven more productive economies - US, Canada, Germany, France, Britain and Italy.

5. Enduring Issues
A. A number of nations signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty, during the Cold War, to halt the spread of nuclear weapons.
B. Terrorism - deliberate use of random violence, especially against civilians, to exact revenge or achieve political goals. Terrorists focus there their attention on their causes and tried to force governments to give in to there demands.
C. Universal Declaration of human Rights - created by UN. Goes on to state that all people are entitled to there basic rights and freedom. Helsinki Accords - guaranteed the basic rights of freedom of speech, religion and press.

Section 2 - Global Economic Trends
1. The Global North and South: Two Worlds of Development\
A. The global north consists of the industrial nations of western Europe and North America, as well as Japan and Australia. They control most of the world's wealth. Most have capitalist economies except Sweden.
B. The global south consists of the developing world. Most nations are in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
C. The gap between the rich and poor is growing.

2. Economic Interdependence
A. Multinational Corporations - enterprises with branches in many countries. These have invested in the developing world. Some see interdependence as the worlds next Imperialism.
B. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) -  a political crisis led to this which halted oil exports and raised prices.
C. Privatization - selling off state-owned industries to private investors.

3. Obstacles to Development
A. Geography has posed a problem to development and the population rate has stayed constant.
B. Rapid growth is linked to poverty and children are the most vulnerable.
C. Under socialism, the government controls the economy.

4. Economic Development and the Environment
A. Modern industry and agriculture have gobbled up natural resources and polluted the world's water, air and soil.
B. Acid Rain - produced by gases from powerplants and factories. A form of pollution in which toxic chemicals in the air come back to the earth as rain, snow or hail.
C. Rich nations create the most pollution out of the world. There have been laws passed to protect against pollution.

Section 3 - Changing Patterns of Life
1. The Village - Continuity and Change
A. Village people make up the largest part of the world's population and most live in the Global South
B. In times of crisis, villagers may gather around a storekeeper's radio.
C. For many, the village remains a center of existence.

2. Old Ways and New
A. People who move from villages to cities often feel stress and isolation or culture shock.
B. Major world religions and offshoots still shape modern societies.
C. Liberation Theology - Roman Catholic clergy adopted the movement. They urged the church to take a more active role in opposing the social conditions that contributed to poverty.

3. New Rights and Roles for Women
A. Women began to gain many rights, like voting and holding offices
B. Women's skills and labor contributed to their nations wealth and they began rising from the middle and elite classes.
C. Women may have started working, but many cultures still believed that a woman's life was in and or around the house.

4. Science and Technology
A. Computers used to be big and slow and now they link businesses and people all around the world.
B. The Soviet Union first launched Sputnik which set off a frantic space race and then others like Japan and China had launched satellites as well.
C. In some areas, the Green Revolution doubled there food production.

5. A New International Culture
A. The thriving force behind the new cultures is the United States
B. Global exchanges have influenced literature and the visual arts for hundreds of years.
C. Global interest in the arts has made nations realize the value of ancient cultural treasures.

6. Looking Ahead
A. Contradictory trends are shaping the world.
B. Global interdependence has become an inescapable fact of life.
C. In many nations people must reconcile local and global interests.

Ch 33 - Europe and North America
Section 1 - The Western World: AN Overview
1. The Cold War in Europe
A. Berlin remained a focus of Cold War tensions. The Berlin Wall was created to section off the 2 sides of Berlin.
B. Each crisis in the Cold War Triggered off an arms race
C. Détente - relaxation of tensions. Brought new agreements to stop nuclear stockpiles.

2. Recovery and Growth in Western Europe
A. Western economies boomed and industries, farms and transportation networks were rebuilt
B. Welfare State - a major goal of the leftist party. The government keeps more features of a capitalist economy but takes greater responsibility for the social and economic needs of its people.
C. Service Industry - one that provides a service not a product. They included health care, finances, sales, recreation etc.

3. Toward European Unity
A. European coal and Steel Community - set prices and otherwise regulated coal and steel industries of member states.
B. The Common Market gradually ended tariffs on goods and allowed labor and capital to move freely across national borders.
C. The European Union became a powerful economic force.

4. Social Trends
A. A tiny wealthy class had dominated the majority of the people.
B. Europeans resented newcomers who came and took there jobs
C. A women's income help her improve her families state of living all together.

Section 2 - The Western European Democracies
1. Britain: Government and the Economy
A. In Britain, the Labour party was put in charge after WWII.
B. The Government nationalized major industries and expanded social welfare benefits such as unemployment insurance and old age pensions.
C. The Conservative party won power over the Labour party and was led by Margaret Thatcher - worked to replace the government social and economic programs with what she called "enterprise culture" that promoted individual initiative.

2. France: Revival and Prosperity
A. French settlers and the French military opposed Algeria's request for independence by nationalists.
B. General Charles de Gaulle - voters turned to him. He set up the 5th republic and made peace with the Algerians.
C. Francois Mitterand - led French socialists that took power. His efforts too nationalize more industries and expand welfare benefits deepened the problem in France

3. Germany: Reunited at last
A. Feuds among the Allies divided Germany into West Germany and East Germany.
B. Konrad Adenaur - strong minded chancellor. Rebuilt cities, factories and trade.
C. Ostpolitik - eastern policy - Willy Brandt tried to ease tensions with communist neighbors to the east with this. His main goal was to reunify Germany.

4. Other Democratic Nations
A. Norway, Sweden and Denmark created extensive socialist welfare programs.
B. In Italy it was divided. The urban north prospered with rebuilt industries and the urban south, largely peasant, remained much poorer.
C. Soon the authoritarian governments of Portugal and Spain collapsed.

Section 3 - North American Prosperity
1. The United States and the Cold War
A. The US was the world's largest military power and was the only one to have the atomic bomb.
B. The US built bases overseas and organized military alliances from Europe to Southeast Asia.
C. Americans at home were bitterly divided by the Vietnam War. There were protests and people stormed in the streets.

2. Economy and the Role of Government
A. The US emerged from WWII with its cities and industries undamaged unlike many European countries.
B. Government role in economy increased but Eisenhower tried to limit it.
C. Lyndon Johnson - pressed ahead with a new program that he called the Great Society.

3. The Civil Rights Movement
A. Many states, especially in the South, still denied African Americans equality.
B. Martin Luther King Jr. emerged and organized boycotts and led peaceful marches.
C. The Civil Rights Movements inspired Native Americans and Hispanics as well as African Americans.

4. The United States and the Global Economy
A. The United States profited greatly from the growing global economy.
B. American Industry faced still competition from Asia and other countries.
C. Americans began to call for tough laws for illegal immigration.

5. Postwar Canada
A. Canada ranked among the major democratic, industrial powers.
B. Canada and the US completed the St. Lawrence Seaway that opened the great lakes to ocean-going ships.
C. Quebec's French-Speaking population saw themselves as a "distinct society".

Section 4 - The Soviet Union: Rise and Fall of a Superpower
1. Stalin's Successors
A. Stalin returned to his ruthless prewar policies after WWII.
B. Nikita Khrushchev - emerged as the new Soviet Leader. He publicly denounced Stalin's misuse in power and pursued a goal of de-Stalinization.
C. He set goals and freed many imprisoned politicians and eased censorship.

2. The Soviet Economy
A. The Soviet launched Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth. Unemployment was almost non-existent
B. Agriculture remained so unproductive that Soviet leaders had to ship in grain to feed its people.
C. A huge bureaucracy, rather than supply and demand, decided what to produce, how much and for whom.

3. Foreign Policy Issues
A. Khrushchev set up the Warsaw Pact for defense against the NATO.
B. The US and the Soviet Union got into conflicts like the Vietnam war and the Korean War where the Soviet's backed North Korea North Vietnam and the US backed South Korea and South Vietnam.
C. Détente came to an abrupt end after the Soviets invaded Afghanistan to ensure Soviet influence.

4. Collapse of the Soviet Empire
A. Gorbachez took reigns of power and launched 2 pronged efforts at reform.
B. The first effort was the glasnost or openness. He ended censorship and encouraged people to speak publicly
C. The second reform he took was called perestroika - restructuring of government and the economy.

5. The Russian Republic
A. Russia approved a constitution but did not have any democratic traditions.
B. To deal with some economic problems, Yeltsin had to privatize more state run industries and collective farms.
C. Russia exercised its influence as a world power even after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

6. The Other Republics
A. Other former Soviet governments wanted to build stable governments and improve there standard of living.
B. Ethnic violence erupted in republics that included a mix of national groups.
C. The republic of Georgia was torn by a civil war.

Section 5 - A New Era in Eastern Europe
1. In the Soviet Orbit
A. Backed by the Soviets, communist parties destroyed rival parties, silenced critics, censored the press, and campaigned against religion.
B. Imre Nagy - communist reformer and strong nationalist, that gained power in Hungary. He withdrew from the Warsaw Pact
C. Tito - set up communist power in Yugoslavia and refused to join the Warsaw Pact.

2. Poland's Struggle Towards Democracy
A. Poland was the Soviets more troublesome satellite.
B. Lech Walesa - leader of shipyard workers from port of Gdansk. The organized an independent trade Union called Solidarity.
C. Solidarity candidates outpolled those of the communist parties.

3. Revolution and Freedom
A. One by one Communist governments began to fall.
B. Only Romania brutal leader Ceausescu refused to step down from power.
C. Eastern European nations set out to build stable governments and free market economies.

4. The War Comes to Sarajevo
A. The three main ethnic groups of Sarajevo were Croats, Serbs and Orthodox Christians.
B. Sarajevo was part of Yugoslavia.
C. Muslims made up the majority in Bosnia and there were many Croats and Serbs.

5. Looking Ahead
A. NATO forces were sent to Bosnia to implement the agreements called the Dayton Accords.
B. When the civil war began in Yugoslavia, United Nations forces tried but failed to restore the peace.
C. The US finally imposed a least temporary peace in Yugoslavia.