Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Ch. 27

Militarism- This is the glorification of the military. In the late 1800’s there was a rise of this and under this the armed forces and readiness for war came to dominate national policy.  

Ultimatum- This is a final set of demands. Austria sent Serbia one of these after the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and said they would declare war if Serbia did not agree to it.  

Mobilize-This is to prepare the military forces for war. When Russia did this, Germany responded by declaring war on them.  

Neutrality- This is a policy of supporting neither side in a war. Italy and Britain tried to remain neutral but were forced to pick aside.  

Total war- This is the channeling of a nations entire resources into a war effort. During World War I many countries saw that without total war they could lose.  

Propaganda- This is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an apposing cause. Posters, songs, and cartoons are all different forms of propaganda used during war. 

Atrocity- These are horrible acts against innocent people. There are many horrible stories of these from wartime.  

Armistice- This is an agreement to end fighting. The new german government sought on of these from the Allies and this ended the war. 

Reparations- This is a payment for war damage. Germany was forced to pay huge reparations that forever weekend their government.  

Mandate- These are territories that were administered by Western Powers. Many treaties that were set up created this system of mandates.  

Edith Cavell- She was a British nurse who ran a Red Cross hospital in Belgium even after the German invasions. She became known as a national hero.  

Georges Clemenceau- He was one of the “Big Three” who helped make decisions at the Paris Peace Conference and helped make the Treaty of Versailles. He was a French leader and he had a fierce war policy.

Alfred Nobel- He invented dynamite and the nobel peace prize. He later felt guilty for how his invention of dynamite was being used.

 

Gavrillo Princip- He was the assassin who killed Archduke francise Ferdinand. He never said he didn’t murder the Archduke and only admitted to regretting killing a woman. But because he was under 20 years of age he was not executed but instead died in prison from tuberculosis.  

Sarajevo- As Archduke Francis Ferdinand drove through the city of Sarajavo there was an attempt at his assassination. This first attempt was failed but he was soon killed in another part of Sarajevo.  

Woodrow Wilson- He was another member of the “Big Three” and was the president of the United States. He urged “peace without victory” and proposed the 14 points.  

(Wilson's Fourteen Points Points)- This was a list of Wilson’s terms that were supposed to resolve this and future wars. He called for an end to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, and large-scale reductions of arms.  

Francis Ferdinand- he was the Archduke of Serbia and was not a supporter of democracy which did not make him popular. He ignored many warning not to go to Sarajevo and later felt the consequences. 

Kaiser William II- He was the Kaiser of Germany. He boasted of his great navy and caused Britain to expand their navy from speculations of their motives.  

Bertha Von Sutner- She was a baroness who was born into an Austrian military family. She wrote an antiwar novel named Lay Down Your Arms. She organized and Austrian peace society and was the only woman to attend the Hague conference.  

Triple Alliance- Germany formed the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy in 1882.  They did this because a previous treaty with Austria-Hungary and Russia was very weak and did not work out.  

Ottoman Empire- Germany signed a treaty with the Ottoman Empire while Britain drew close to Japan. Rather than easing the tensions the growth of rival alliances only led to more.  

Trench warfare- This is an underground network linked bunkers. On the Western front the warring armies burrowed into a vast system of trenches.  

Machine gun (role it played in WWI)- The machine gun was an important piece of evidence of how the arms race worked during this time. The machine gun made it easier for trench warfare and made it more possible to kill more people in a shorter amount of time.  

Airplane (role it played in WWI)- The airplane made it possible to travel easier and made it possible to drop bombs on different areas. It was also an important part of the arms race.  

Role of women in WWI- Women played a major role in total war because as the men left and went off to war women took their places and basically kept the country running. Women also helped by running red Cross hospitals and aiding as nurses on the battlegrounds.   

Nationalism (ie. tension between France and Germany)- Nationalism is a stong sense of pride in ones own country. This caused a lot of issues because of the tensions between France and Germany. It was hard for any alliances to work out when they felt so close to their country alone.  

Paris Peace Conference- The Paris Peace Conference was headed up by the “Big Three” which consisted of Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, and David Lyoed George. The Paris Peace Conference helped to solve many of the issues after the war and put almost all of the blame on Germany and made them pay huge reparations.  

American neutrality- The Americans decided to remain neutral for the majority of the war but they were finally dragged into the war because the continued attacks by German submarines on merchants and passenger ships carrying American citizens. In 1917, the United States decided to join the war against Germany and its Allies. 

Black Hand- The Black Hand was a terrorist group organized by Bosnian Serbs. Principe joined this group before the assassination of Francis Ferdinand and was probably a main reason for the assassination. This group was involved in organizing all South Slav people into a single nation and they were also known as the Unity or Death. 

Treaty of Versailles- The treaty of Versailles was mainly put together on Woodrow’s 14 points and was headed up by the “Big Three”. This treaty was signed outside of Paris in the palace of Versailles this also helped to put the blame on Germany and put them under an agreement.  

Self determination- Woodrow Wilson often spoke of democracy and self-determination and this talk raised expectations for a just and lasting peace. Although it seemed so great it also posed a lot of problem by having other countries start to demand national states of their own.  

Shleiffen Plan- The Schlieffen Plan was created by General Alfred Von Schlieffen and it was his plan to avoid from getting into a two front war. Under this plan Germany first had to quickly defeat France then move onto fight Russia.  

U boat- U boats were used to launch torpedoes at enemy ships. U boats helped with leading many attacks on innocent merchant ships and this probably one major reason the United States joined the war. 

Lusitania- This was a British ship and almost 1,200 people, including 128 Americans, were killed on it. After torpedoing the ship, the Germans justified the attack by arguing that it was carrying weapons 

Armistice- This is an agreement to end fighting. The new German government sought on of these from the Allies and this ended the war. 

Mandate- These are territories that were administered by Western Powers. Many treaties that were set up created this system of mandates. 

War reparations- Germany was forced to pay enormous war reparations which caused the German economy to forever be weekend.  Also Germany was forced to take all the blame and these reparations were part of the punishment.  

Western front- On the Western front the armies were warring in trench warfare. It stretched from the Swiss frontier to the English Channel.

Eastern front- On the Eastern front, battle lines swayed back and forth, usually over large areas. Luckily there were fewer casualties than in the West. 

Verdun-The Battle of Verdun was most likely one of the bloodiest battles of the war. Over 2 million people fought in the war in the town of Verdun on February 21, 1916.

Battle of Marne- In the first battle at Marne on September 6, 1914, advances made by the Germans to Paris were stopped by the Allies. The Germans then retreated and abandoned the Schlieffen plan. The German Army took a major blow before they were destroyed on on the second battle in July of 1918.