I. The Stage is Set
A. Pressure for peace
1. Aletta Jacobs was the first
woman doctor in the
2. The Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom was one organization that gave women a way to voice their concerns.
3. The First Universal Peace
Conference brought leaders of many nations in
B. Aggressive nationalism
1. Nationalism was strong in
2. German’s were proud of their new empire’s military power and industrial leadership.
C. Economic and imperial rivalries
1. The British felt threatened by
2. In 1905 and in 1911, competition
for colonies brought
D. Militarism and the arms race
1. Militarism, or the glorification of the military, rose in the late 1800’s.
2. The rise in militarism grew partly out of the ideas of Social Darwinism.
3. The German militarist Friedrich von Bernhard clamed that war was “a biological necessity of the first importance.”
E. A tangle of alliances
1. In order to protect themselves, many great powers tried to protect themselves through alliances.
2. Nations signed treaties and pledged to defend each other.
3. In 1914,
II. The guns of august
A. A murder with millions of victims
1. A small revolutionary group in
2. A terrorist group, commonly known as the Black Hand, was created by Bosnian Serbs to organize all South Slav peoples into a single nation.
3. When it came time for action, two of three conspirators carrying bombs and pistols lost their nerve, but the third hurled his bomb at the archduke’s care. He injured an officer in another car.
B. Peace unravels
1. Francis Joseph, the emperor of
3. On July 28,
C. Whose fault?
1. During the war, each side blamed
the other. However, after the war, the victorious allies blamed
3. On both sides of the war, the people were committed to the military and were eager to enlist.
III. A new kind of conflict
A. The western front
1. Modern weapons during the time added to the destructiveness of the war.
2. In 1914, German artillery could shell enemy lines from a distance of 15 miles away.
3. By 1918, German artillery could shell the enemy lines from 70 miles away.
B. Other European fronts
1. At the battle of
3. Many times, troops of the Russian army did not even have riffles, making it hard to compete.
The war beyond
2. Some people in the colonies volunteered eagerly and expected their service in the war would result in citizenship or independence. Others, however, had a different opinion.
IV. Winning the war
A. Effects of the stalemate
1. “Total war” s the channeling of a nation’s entire resources into a war effort
2. All of the warring nations,
3. Both sides waged a propaganda war, and showed the other side as barbaric.
B. Women at work
1. When the men left to fight, the women took over their jobs and kept national economies going.
2. Many women worked in war industries and manufactured weapons and supplies.
3. Other women volunteered in the Women’s Land Army and went to the fields to grow their nation’s food.
C. Collapsing morale
1. By 1917,
3. Both sides were threatened by food shortages, long casualty lists, and the failure of generals to win promised victories that led to calls for peace.
1. After staying neutral for so
2. One reason the
E. Campaign to victory
1. In March of 1918, the Germans pushed the Allies back 40 miles by July.
2. The Allies slowly drove the
German forces back across
3. The new German government sought
an armistice, or agreement to end the fighting, on
V. Making the peace
A. The costs of war
1. More than 8.5 people died during the war
2. About double the amount of people that died were people injured, and many of these people were handicapped for life.
3. More than 20 million people died in just a few months from the flue epidemic that spread soon after the war.
2. Secret agreements made by the Allies during the war were one of the major issues at the Paris Peace Conference.
3. Many people who had been ruled before the war demanded national states of their own.
The treaty of
1. In 1919, the peacemakers
summoned representative of the new
2. In the treaty, it forced
3. The treaty imposed huge reparations that would put the German economy under a huge burden.
D. Other settlements
E. Hopes for global peace
1. More than 40 nations joined the
3. The league was basically powerless in preventing aggression or war. However, it was a huge step in creating an organization dedicated in maintaining peace.