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Appeasement – appeasement is giving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace. Western democracies took this approach in dealing with Hitler’s early rise

Blitzkrieg – blitzkrieg is another term for “lightning war.” This term was given to the type of attack Nazi forces used when storming Poland. German planes bombed airfields, factories, towns, and cities quickly and very affectively in order to advance in 1939.

cold war – conflicting ideologies and mutual distrust between the former Allies who defeated the Nazis (Soviet Union and nations of the West) led to the Cold War. This war was not a war at all, but a state of hostility and tension and constant threat of war between the major rivals.

Collaborator – A person who cooperates with an enemy. Some people were collaborators who helped the Nazi’s hunt down the Jews.

Containment – The Truman Doctrine was rooted in the idea of containment, limiting communism to the areas already under Soviet control. George Kennan, the American statesman who first proposed this approach, believed that communism would eventually destroy itself.

Genocide – The deliberate attempt to destroy an entire religious or ethnic group. Hitler sought to destroy all of the Jews because of his hatred against them.

Kamikaze – To save their homeland, many Japanese became Kamikaze pilots, who undertook suicide missions, crashing their planes loaded with explosives into American warships.

Pacifism – The great depression sapped the energies of the western democracies. Finally, widespread pacifism, or opposition to all war, and disgust with the last war pushed governments to seek peace at any price.

Winston Churchill – The Czech crisis revealed the Nazi menace. British politician Winston Churchill, who had long warned of the Nazi threat, judged the diplomats harshly.  Later he would replace Chamberlain as prime minister. 

Francisco Franco – Franco led a revolt that started a bloody civil war. His group known as nationalists rallied all others including communists, socialists, Loyalists, supporters of democracy, and others.

Dwight Eisenhower – Eisenhower was the supreme Allied commander who faced jobs such as assembling troops and supplies. Eisenhower was also in charge of leading the second front in Europe.

Haile Selassie – He was the king of Ethiopia. He appealed to the League of Nations when his country was being attacked by Italy. He led defending Ethiopian troops.

Harry Truman – After Roosevelt died suddenly on April 12th 1945, President Harry Truman took his place. Truman had to decide whether to drop an atomic bomb or to send millions of men to their death. During his few weeks as Vice President, Harry S. Truman received no briefing on the development of the atomic bomb or the unfolding difficulties with Soviet Russia.

Dunkirk – In a desperate gamble, the British sent every available naval vessel, merchant ship, and even every pleasure boat across the choppy channel to pluck strand troops off the beaches of Dunkirk and Ostend.

El Alamein – In Egypt, the British under General Bernard Montgomery finally stopped Pommel’s advance during the long, fierce Battle of El Alamein.

Guernica – among the worst horrors was a German air raid on Guernica, a small Spanish market town of no military value; estimated 1,600 people were killed

Hiroshima – On August 6, 1945 an American plane dropped an atomic bomb on the mid size town of Hiroshima. The bomb completely flattened four square miles and instantly killed 70000 people. More died of radiation in the following years

Nagasaki – this is known as the second atomic bomb, on Nagasaki. This bomb killed more than 40,000 people.

Pearl Harbor – As tension grew between America and Japan, General Tojo ordered a surprise attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor. On December 7, 1941 Japanese airplanes struck, destroying 19 ships, numerous planes, and killing 2400 people.

Operation Barbarossa – Hitler embarked on Operation Barbarossa in June of 1941; conquest of Soviet Union; motives: wanted to fain “living space” for Germans and to win control of regions rich in resources

D-Day – allies invade France; June 6, 1944. All of France was freed within a month, 176,000 troops were ferried across the English Channel

Battle of Midway – Six months after Pearl Harbor, American warships and airplanes severely damaged Japanese fleets at the Battle of Midway Island. This was the first in a series of island hopping campaigns to get closer to Japan itself.

Francisco Franco – Franco led a revolt that started a bloody civil war. His group known as nationalists rallied all others including communists, socialists, Loyalists, supporters of democracy, and others. 

Tojo Hideki – Tojo Hideki was the General of Japan who ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor. During the attack, 19 ships were damaged or destroyed, and nearly 2500 Americans lost their lives.

Neville Chamberlin – he was he prime minister of Britain. He declared that the Munich pact had “saved Czechoslovakia from destruction and Europe from Armageddon.”

Franklin Roosevelt – US President. He signed the Atlantic Charter with Churchill that set goals for the war, especially an ultimate destruction of the Nazi tyranny.

Stalingrad – Soldiers fought for two weeks straight during the battle of Stalingrad. Both Hitler and Stalin were determined to capture the city. The German commander finally surrendered in 1943.

Explain 2 reasons why the US used the atomic bomb against Japan: Well, first, Japan was too powerful and threw a threat toward the United States. And second, the United States wanted to put an end to the war so they did so which killed just as many people as going into each city and killing them one by one.