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I. Early Challenges to World Peace

  1. Among the earliest tests of war were from Japan, by the ultranationalists of the country.
  2. In 1935, Mussolini ordered Italy to invade Ethiopia, and Italy succeeded.
  3. Western democracies accepted appeasement, which is giving in to the demands of an aggressor merely to keep the peace.

II. The Spanish Civil War

  1. In 1936, Spain began a civil war that, though it began as a small struggle, it pulled other European nations in.
  2. Previous to the civil war, Spain was dominated mainly by a wealthy class, thus causing the revolution and civil war by those unhappy with the old system.
  3. Franco’s Nationalists led a revolt that started the civil war against the Loyalist republic supporters.

III. German Aggression Continues

  1. Hitler’s goal was to bring all German-speaking people into the Third Reich, and thus he worked to gain “living space” for them.
  2. In 1938, Hitler began planning to annex Austria; his methods included appointing Nazis to high class positions.
  3. Czechoslovakia was Hitler’s next target, and Britain and France weren’t willing to protect them.

IV. The Plunge Toward War

  1. Munich didn’t bring peace, and Europe was soon a part of the war, exactly as Churchill predicted.
  2. 1939, Hitler made a nonaggression pact with his enemy, Joseph Stalin, surprising the world.
  3. A week after this pact, Germany invaded Poland and, honoring their commitment to Poland, England and France went to their rescue.

V. Why War Came

  1. Europe was divided into two camps as per the Treaty of Versailles.
  2. Despite the fact that Hitler published his goals in Mein Kampf, the world underestimated what he could do.
  3. People believe that if England and France had taken action back in 1936, Hitler would have retreated and what happened could have been avoided.

VI. The First Onslaught

  1. When France fell, Britain was alone, so Hitler knew that Britain would push for peace.
  2. The Battle of Britain began on August 12, 1940, when German bombers appeared on Britain’s horizon.
  3. Late in the day on September 7, German bombers attacked London, and the battle went through to the next day.

VII. The Battle of Britain

  1. The Battle of Britain began on August 12, 1940, when German bombers appeared on Britain’s horizon.
  2. Late in the day on September 7, German bombers attacked London, and the battle went through to the next day.
  3. The capital was bombarded with explosives, firebombs, and various other explosions.

VIII. Charging Ahead

  1. Axis armies were heading into North Africa and the Balkans as the Luftwaffe was attacking Britain.
  2. Italian forces invaded Greece in 1940, where they clashed with German forces.
  3. Bulgaria and Hungary, meanwhile, had joined the Axis alliance.

IX. Operation Barbarossa

  1. In 1941 Hitler embarked on operation Barbarossa which was the conquest of the Soviet Union
  2. In operation Barbarossa Hitler unleashed a new blitzkrieg where about 3 million Germans poured into Russia.
  3. Meanwhile, the Russians suffered appalling hardships and in 1941 the 2.5 year siege of Leningrad began.

X. Growing America Involvement

  1. The United States declared neutrality when the war began in 1939.
  2. In 1941, FDR decided that the United States was legally able to send war supplies to countries participating in the war.
  3. Meanwhile, the Russians suffered war hardships as the two and a half year siege of Leningrad began.

XI. Japan Attacks

  1. In December 1941, the Allies gained a vital boost in the war.
  2. However, a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor pushed the United States suddenly and abruptly into the war.
  3. This attack, while devastating for the United States, turned out to be as horrible as mistake as Hitler’s invasion of Russia.

XII. Occupied Lands

  1. While the Germans rampaged across Europe the Japanese conquered an empire in Asia and the pacific
  2. Hitler’s new order grew out of his racial obsessions
  3. As Jews reached the camps they were stripped of their clothes and valuables

XIII. The Allied War Effort

  1. After the United States entered the war the allied leaders met periodically to hammer out there strategies 
  2. Like the Axis powers the allies were committed to total war
  3. Under pressure of war even democratic governments limited the rights of citizens

XIV. Turning Point

  1. During 1942 and 1943 the allies won several victories that would turn the tide of battle.
  2. In Egypt the British under General Bernard Montgomery finally stopped Rommels advance during the long fierce battle of El Alamein.
  3. Later in 1942 American general Dwight Eisenhower took command of joint Anglo American force in Morocco and Algeria.

XV. The Red Army Resists

  1. Another major turning point in the war occurred in the Soviet Union.
  2. The battle of Stalin grad was one of the costliest of the war.
  3. The battle began when the Germans surrounded the city.

XVI. Invasion of France

  1. By 1944 the Allies were at last ready to open the long awaited second front in Europe the invasion of France.
  2. The Allies chose June 6 1944 D Day they called it for the invasion of France.
  3. In Paris French resistance forces rose up against the occupying Germans.

XVII. Toward Victory

  1. While the allies battled to liberate Europe fighting against the Japanese in Asia raged on.
  2. At first the Japanese won an uninterrupted series of victories.
  3. By mid 1942, however, the tide began to turn.

XVIII. War in the Pacific

  1. A major turning point in the Pacific war occurred just six months after the bombing or Pearl Harbor.
  2. After the battle of Midway the United States took the offensive, with their “island-hopping” technique.
  3. On the captured islands the Americans built air bases to enable them to carry the war closer to Japan.

XIX The Nazis defeated

  1. By this time Germany was reeling under round the clock bombing.
  2. By March, the Allies had crossed the Rhine into western Germany
  3. Hitler too scorned talk of surrender if the war is to be lost he declared the nation also will perish.

XX. Defeat of Japan

  1. With war won in Europe the allies poured their resources into defeating Japan.
  2. Some American officials estimated that an invasion of Japan would cost million or more casualties.
  3. While Allied military leaders planned for invasion scientists offered another way to end the war.

XXI. Looking Ahead

  1. After the surrender American forces occupied the smoldering ruins of Japan.
  2. In Germany mean while the allies had divided Hitler’s fallen empire into four zones of occupation French, British, American, and Russian.
  3. How could they avoid the mistakes of 1919 and build the foundation for a stable world peace?

XXII. From World War to Cold War

  1. Give me ten years and you will not be able to recognize Germany said Hitler in 1933.
  2. His prophecy was correct although not in the way he intended.
  3. Amid the devastation hanger and disease took large tolls for years after the fighting ended.

XXIII. Aftermath of the War

  1. While the Allies celebrated victory, the appalling costs of the war began to emerge.
  2. During the war, the Allies knew about the existence of Nazi concentration camps, but only at wars end did they learn of the true horror of the torture and misery that was in them.
  3. At wartime meetings, the Allies had agreed that Axis leaders should be tried for “crimes against humanity.”

XXIV. The United Nations

  1. The United Nations was established in San Francisco in April of 1945. 
  2. Delegates from 50 nations around the world met and developed a charter, with the goal in mind to give equal power to different nations, so that issues may be voted on and dealt with. 
  3. Peacekeeping is not their only objective, however, as they also work to do things such as prevent disease, improve education, protect refugees, and help third world and developing nations develop economically.

XXV. The Crumbling Alliance

  1. Despite the rubble of the war, a new power structure emerged amidst the chaos.
  2. During the war, the Soviets and the Western European nations and the United States had cooperated to destroy the Nazis.
  3. Afterwards, however, the Soviet leader pointed out that they were not consulted by the United States as were Italy and Japan.

XXVI. Containing Communism

  1. President Truman, as did Winston Churchill, saw communism as a threatening force against the world’s economy and well being.
  2. In his Doctrine, President Truman outlined his policies for containing and stopping communism.
  3. His ideas were meant to stop the postwar hungered and poverty-struck nations from turning to communism.