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Soviet - Soviets were councils of workers and soldiers.  These were set up to insure that people could get food in the cities.

Command economy - Economy where government officials made all basic economic decisions. Soviet Union developed a command economy.

Collectives - Under Stalin land was taken away from the people and the commoners were forced to work on state farms or collectives.  Collectives were pieces of land owned by a large number of peasants.

Kulak - A Kulak was a wealthy peasant. Under Stalin's rule all kulaks had to be destroyed. 

Totalitarian state - form of government where a one-party dictatorship attempts to regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizens. Stalin tuned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state.

Socialist realism - Socialist realism was a style of art that showed socialism in a "positive light".  Under Stalin most artists and writers were forced to change to socialist realism.

Lenin - Lenin's real name was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov.  As a child his brother was arrested for attempting to murder Alexander III.  While in school he read works by Karl Marx and participated eagerly in student demonstrations. 

Osip Mandelstam - Jewish poet that was imprisoned, tortured, and exiled for composing a satirical verse about Stalin. For fear of his wife he gave up and wrote an 'Ode to Stalin'.

Nicholas II - In Easter 1913 Nicholas gave his wife a beautiful jeweled egg.  This egg symbolized the 300th anniversary of the dynasty.  

Gregory Rasputin - A phony "healer" in which the czarina thought would heal her only son, Alexis.  At one point this phony healer could hire and fire officials as he pleased, causing the government to be corrupt.  He was known as the "mad monk".  

Joseph Stalin - After Lennin's sudden death in 1924 Joseph Stalin became one of the main leaders. He was known as the "man of steel", and put his top supporters as high officials to crush the other leader Trotsky. He had a ruthless policy in office and his rule in office was absolute.

Stalin's 5 Year Plan - Stalin's main goal was building a heavy industry, improving transportation, and increasing farm output.  To achieve all of these things he put the economy under his control with a command economy.

Socialist realism - Three years of war hit the economy very hard. Stories of incompetent generals and corruption destroyed the public confidence. Bread riots in St Petersburg transformed into a revolution that brought down the Russian monarchy.

Totalitarian state - As Marx's predicted under communism, the state would slowly wither away.  The Soviet Union is a perfect example of this.  Stalin made the USSR into a totalitarian state, in which a one-party dictator attempts to regulate every aspect of one person's life. 

Anna Akhmatova -  She was one of Russia's greatest poets, however due to socialist realism, her work was not seen.  To keep her genius poetry and writings safe her closest friends memorized them.

V.I. Lenin - Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov.  He was the main person to spread Marxist ideas among factory workers along with other socialists. He eventually led the Bolsheviks to take over the czar and convert Russia into a socialist nation.

Mikhail Sholokhov - The writer of And Quiet Flows the Don.   The book tells about a man who spends WWI fighting the Russian Revolution and the Civil war.  Later he received a Nobel Prize for his work.

Joseph Stalin - he was one of the chief contenders to take over Lenin's communist government after he suddenly died. Stalin won the battle and set up the Soviet Union in Russia.

Leon Trotsky - When Lenin died he was in a race with Stalin for power.  Trotsky was a brilliant Marxist thinker and a skillful speaker, however due to loaded elections Trotsky lost. 

Socialist revolution - The Socialist Revolution began when Lenin and the Bolsheviks plotted together to kill Nicolas II. After Nicolas II was dead Lenin came into power and was liked by many until he died and Stalin came into power.

Bolshevik Revolution - The Bolsheviks was ready to do almost anything to get their way.   Most people were both happy and scared at the overthrowing of the czar.  People were happy that they were going to rule their own country yet, also scared about how powerful and fast the takeover lasted.

Lenin's New Economic Policy - Lenin wanted to make something that Marx would be proud of.  He wanted to give the people an equal amount of everything, and therefore make a classless society. 

Stalin - Joseph Stalin took power after Lenin's sudden and unfortunate death. Stalin's real name given to him at birth was Joseph Djugashvili; Stalin also was born to a poor family in Georgia. As Stalin grew up he studied priesthood, but he was never truly interested in being a priest.

Stalin's 5 Year Plan - Stalin's main goal was building a heavy industry, improving transportation, and increasing farm output.  To achieve all of these things he put the economy under his control with a command economy.

The arts under Stalin - Under Stalin all art had to be shown in a positive light in Socialism.  This movement was called a socialist realism.

List three causes of the 1917 revolution in Russia - people were upset about being forced to stay in World War I.  they had no more weapons, food, and clothing.  They, the people, felt that they needed more freedom.