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Section 1 - Struggle for Change in Latin America

The Mexican Revolution
A. Dictator Porfirio Diaz had ruled Mexico for more than 35 years and he welcomed foreign investors who developed mines, built railroads and drilled for oil.
B. Francisco Madero - liberal reformer, who demanded free elections in 1910. After being imprisoned he hoisted a flag for revolt. Faced with rebellion all over the country, Diaz resigned and Madero became president, but in 2 years was murdered by Victoriano Huerto - who was given the order by one of his generals.
C. Francisco "Pancho" Villa - hard riding rebel from the north, fought mostly for personal power. Emiliano Zapata - led a peasant revolt. Was an Indian Tenant farmer. Soldaderas - women soldiers, who cooked, tended the wounded and fought alongside men.

Reforms
A. Venustiano Carranza - conservative that took over Mexico and approved a new constitution.
B. Constitution of 1917 - addressed 3 major issues, land, religion and labor. It permited the breakup of large estates, placed restrictions on foreigners and allowed nationalization - government takeover - of natural resources
C. Institutional Revolutionary Party - managed to accommodate all groups in Mexican society, including business and military leaders, peasants and workers.

Rising Tide of Nationalism
A. Latin American countries were determined to develop their own economies and end foreign economic control.
B. Mexico and Venezuela benefited from growing demand for oil.
C. Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, David Siqueiros - muralists that created magnificent works that won worldwide acclaim.

The "Good Neighbor" Policy
A. During the Mexican Revolution, the US supported leaders who it thought would protect American Interests.
B. Anti Yankee sentiment came about after the US punished Mexico for a few events
C. Under The Good Neighbor Policy - the US withdrew troops it had stationed in Haiti and Nicaragua. It also lifted the Platt Amendment that had limits on Cuban independence.
Section 2 - Nationalist Movements in Africa and Middle East

Movements for Change in Africa
A. White settlers forces Africans off the best land and said that they were forbidden to grow the most profitable crops. The British made all Africans carry identification cards that restricted where they lived or traveled.
B. Socialism had a growing appeal in Africa. The Women's war - became a full fledged revolt where women with machetes and sticks mocked British troops and shouted down officials to disperse.
C. Apartheid - imposed system of racial segregation whose goal was to ensure white economic problems. The African National Congress - worked through legal means, protesting laws that restricted the freedom of Black African Americans.

Growing Self Confidence
A. The Movement known as Pan - Africanism began to nourish the nationalist spirit. It emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African Descent around the world.
B. Marcus Garvey - inspiring leader who preached the forceful message of "Africa For Africans" and demanded to end the colonial rule.
C. W.E.B DuBois - African American Pan-Africanist who tried to forge a united front. He organized the first Pan-African Congress in 1919.

Modernization in Turkey and Iran
A. The Arab lands of the Ottoman Empire was divided up by France and Britain. Mustafa Kemal - led Turkish Nationalists and overthrew the Sultan, defeated western occupation forces and declared Turkey a republic. The Ataturk goals were to modernize Turkey along western lines and create a secular state that separated religion from government.
B. Ataturk forced his people to wear western dress and replaced the Arabic script with a western Alphabet.
C. Nationalists were inspired by Ataturk in Iran. Reza Khan - overthrew the Shah in Iran and set up his own Pahlavi dynasty where he was the Shah.

Arab Nationalism and European Mandates
A. Pan Arabism - sought to free Arabs from foreign domination and unite them in their own state.
B. Arabs felt betrayed by the west because the mandates set up by the Paris Peace Conference. They had been promised independence but instead the Allies spread apart the Ottoman Lands.
C. Theodore Herzl - founded the Zionist movement. His goal was to rebuild a new state in Palenstine.




Section 3 - India Seeks Self Rule

Moves Toward Independence
A. During WW1 more than a million Indians had served overseas, suffering huge casualties.
B. The British promised India greater self-government after the war. But when the fighting ended Britain proposed only a few minor changes.
C. Mohandas Gandhi united all the Indians to drive for independence.

Mohandas Gandhi
A. Mohandas Gandhi came from a middle class Hindu family. He went to England to study law and he adopted nonviolent resistance.
B. Above all, he preached the ancient doctrine ahimsa.
C. Civil Disobedience - refusal to obey unjust laws. Gandhi called for boycotts of British goods, especially textiles, and urged Indians to wear only cotton grown and woven in India

The Salt March
A. Indians could only use the salt from the government and not the sea. Gandhi led a march to the sea and when he was there he had more than a thousand followers.
B. As Gandhi's campaign gained force, more and more followers were put to jail
C. The Salt March embarrassed Britain.

Looking Ahead
A. Tensions between Hindus and Muslims often erupted into violence
B. The Muslim League gained the member Muhammad Ali Jinnah who felt the need for a separate state from the Muslims that would be called Pakistan.
C. Hindu Muslim violence raged on the Indian continent.

Section 4 - Upheavals in China

The Chinese Republic
A. Sun Yixian stepped down for Yuan Shikai who tried to set up a new ruling dynasty with himself, the emperor. When her died it was worse.
B. Local landlords seized power, the economy collapsed and peasants suffered many hardships. During this time, foreign influence became greater.
C. Women played a key role in the May 4th Movement and joined marches and campaigned to end arranged marriages.

Leaders for a New China
A. Sun Yixian and his Guomindang, or nationalist, party established a government in Southern China. He planned to defeat the landlords, planned to raise an army and spread his rule over all of China.
B. Jiang Jieshi - took over after Sun. He captured Beijing and slaughtered communist party members and he wanted to destroy the Communists.
C. Mao Zedong - was a Chinese Communist and redistributed land to peasants and offered schooling and healthcare. The Long March symbolized Communist heroism to Chinese that opposed the Guomindang.

Japanese Invasion
A. While Jiang was pursuing communists around the country, Japan invade Manchuria adding to the Japanese empire.
B. Then they attacked China with airplanes that bombed Chinese cities and well trained soldiers that overran eastern China - other known as the "rape of Nanjing".
C. Within a few years the communists would triumph.

Section 5 - Empire of the Rising Sun

Liberal Changes of the 1920s
A. Japan moved toward greater democracy. Japanese women remained subordinate to men.
B. During WW1 Japanese economy grew.
C. Socialists began to be elected to the Diet. The Zaibatsu strongly influenced politics and they pushed for policies to favor international trade and their own interests.

The Nationalist Reaction
A. The Great Depression hit Japan with big force. They depended on trade and it was almost gone.
B. Ultranationalists condemned politicians for agreeing to western demands to stop overseas expansion. The racial policies in areas made nationalists mad as well
C. Japanese Army officers blew up a track of railroad on a Japanese Railroad line and blamed it on the Chinese. They then attacked Chinese forces. They conquered Manchuria. This was called the Manchurian Incident

Militarists in Power
A. To please ultranationalists, the civilian government cracked down on socialists and ended more democratic freedoms.
B. Japan increased its influence in China during the civil wars of China and committed terrible atrocities as they overran eastern China.
C. Japan joined with Germany and Italy in WW2.