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Ch 14

Annul: To cancel

 

Gravity: The force the keeps objects from floating into space.

 

Patron: A financial supporter.

 

Perspective: Artistic technique used to give drawings and paintings a three-dimensional

effect.

 

Theocracy: Government ran by the church.

 

John Calvin: He was the most important reformer to follow Martin Luther. He preached predestination and set up theocracy.

 

Henry VIII: Henry VIII was the one that ended church rule. At first he did not believe in the Protestant revolt and later on became part of it.

 

Leonardo da Vinci: Da Vinci was one of the most brilliant minds of the renaissance. His most well known painting was the Mona Lisa.

 

Lorenzo de' Medici: Medici and his family was one of the first banking systems of the time. After the prospered they were considered one of the richest merchant, for selling wool, and bankers in Europe.

 

Niccolo Machiavelli: He was a diplomat and observed kings and princes in foreign courts. He wrote a book called The Prince. It was and combination of his knowledge of the past and to off a guide to rulers on how to gain and maintain power.

  

Heliocentric: Belief that the sun is the center of the universe.  

 

Humanism: the intellectual movement at the heart of the Italian Renaissance that focused on the worldly subjects rather than on religious issues.

  

Indulgence: pardon for sin committed during a persons life time.

 

Predestination: idea that God long ago determined who will gain salvation.

  

Recant: to give up ones views or beliefs

 

Copernicus: He was the one the revolutionized the way people viewed the universe.

 

Durer: He studied the techniques of Italian masters and employed the techniques he learned into paintings. Through his work, he helped spread Italian Renaissance.

 

Luther: He was the first to reform the Catholic church. He had his 95 theses saying what was wrong with the church.

 

Newton: He was the one that discovered gravity. He also wrote the book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy that explained the law of gravity.

   

Renaissance focus: The focus was to work on the science and artsy stuff of the time. Philosophers began looking into stuff that they never knew. Artist began to try new things in their art. This time was really important to the past and the present other wise we wouldn’t know a lot of things.

 

Printing of reformation: printing became a big part because now they were able to mass produce books because it was faster then writing them all out with their hands. This changed how everything was done

 

Results of Reformation: The results that people were a lot more informed of things around them. The art that came out of it was also amazing.

 

Causes of Renaissance: Causes were that a lot of people were having conflicts with the church. The people would argue the revolt against the church. So the people started the Renaissance to try and fix everything.

 

Ch18

Hobbes: He had the idea that people were driven by major selfishness and greed. To assure safety they would give up freedom to the government.

  

Locke: His idea was that people had a natural right to life, liberty, and property. The rulers had the responsibility to do all that.

 

Joseph II: He was the most radical enlightened despot. He was from Hapsburg and was the successor of Maria Theresa.

 

constitutional govt.: a government whose power is defined and limited by law.

  

enlightened despot: absolute ruler who uses his or her power to bring about political and social charge.

 

natural laws: rules that govern human nature.

 

natural rights: rights that belong to all humans from birth.

 

Physiocrat: an Enlightenment thinker who searched for natural laws to explain economics.

 

Bach: He was a musician that wrote complex and beautiful religious works for organ and choirs.

 

Diderot: He created a twenty-eight volume encyclopedia. His purpose was to change the general way of thinking.

 

Tom Paine: He wrote a pamphlet called Common Sense that was read by a lot of people that immigrated to North America.

 

Rousseau: His thoughts were that people were basically good but become corrupt because of society. In an ideal society people would make the laws and follow them.

 

Robert Walpole: He had a time named after him called the time of Walpole. This was a time of peace and prosperity.

 

Baroque:ornate style of art and architecture popular in the 1600s and 1700s.

  

Free market: market in which goods are bought and sold without restrictions.

  

Laissez faire: policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference.

 

Salon: informal social gathering at which writers, artists, and philosophers exchanged ideas; originated in France in the 1600s

 

Social contract: agreement by which people give up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos.