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Luan Tran


Mr. Haskell


World History


September 20, 2005


Ch. 5 and 6 Outline


Chapter 5

I. Minoan Civilization

†† a. Washed by the warm waters of the Aegean Sea, Crete was home to a brilliant early

†††††† civilization.

†† b. The Palace at Knossos: Place where the ruler of the trading empire, Knossos, lived.

†† c. 1400 B.C. is about when the Minoan civilization disappeared.

II. Rulers of Mycenae

†† a. The Mycenaeans were an Indo-European people, like the Aryans who swept into

†††††† India.

†† b. The Mycenaeans are best remembered for their part in the Trojan War which took

†††††† place ar9und 1250 B.C.

†† c. Straits: narrow water passages.

III. The Age of Homer

†† a. Hot long after the fall of Troy, Mycenaean civilization crumbled under the attack of

†††† ††sea raiders.

†† b. We get hints about life during this period from two great epic poems, the Iliad and

†††††† the Odyssey.

†† c. According to tradition, Homer was a blind poet who wandered from village to

†††††† village, playing his harp and singing heroic deeds.

IV. Looking Ahead

†† a. For centuries after the Dorian invasions, the Greeks lived in small, isolated villages.

†† b. Over time the stories the Greeks heard about Crete and Mycenae underwent changes

†††††† and became part of the Greek heritage.

†† c. The ancient Greeks absorbed many ideas and beliefs from older civilizations in

†††††† Mesopotamia and Egypt.

V. Geography: The Greek Homeland

†† a. Greece is part of the Balkan Peninsula, which extends, which extends southward into

†††††† the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

†† b. The Mediterranean and Aegean seas were as central to the Greek world as the Nile to

†††††† Egypt.

†† c. With hundreds of bays, the Greek coast provided safe harbors for ships.

VI. Polis

†† a. Acropolis: high city on top of a hill or cliff.

†† b. Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., Greeks evolved different kinds of government

†† c. Monarchy: a government in which a king or queen rules all.

VII. Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers

†† a. The Spartans were Dorians who conquered Laconia.

†† b. From childhood, a Spartan prepared to be part of the military state.

†† c. As part of a warrior society, women were expected to produce healthy sons for the

†††††† army.

VIII. Athens: A Limited Democracy

†† a. Solon, a wise and trusted leader, was appointed archon, or chief official, in 594 B.C.

†† b. The Athenian tyrant Pisistratus seized power in 546 B.C.

†† c. By modern standards, Athenian democracy was quite limited.

IX. Forces for Unity

†† a. Like most other ancient people, the Greeks were polytheistic.

b. Greeks honored their gods with temples and festivals.

†† c. As trade expanded and Greek colonies multiplied, the Greeks came in contact with

†††††† people who spoke different languages and had different customs.

X. The Persian Wars

†† a. By 500 B.C., Athens had emerged as the wealthiest Greek city-state.

†† b. In 480 B.C., Xerxes sent a large force to conquer Greece.

†† c. Victory in the Persian Wars increased the Greek sense of their own uniqueness.

XI. Athens in the Age of Pericles

†† a. Pericles believed that all male citizens, regardless of wealth or social class, should

†††††† take part in government.

†† b. Athens prospered during the Age of Pericles.

†† c. With the help of an educated foreign-born woman named Aspasia, Pericles turned

†††††† Athens into the cultural center of Greece.

XII. Greek Against Greek

†† a. The power of Athens contained the seeds of disaster.

†† b. Despite its riches and powerful navy, Athens faced a serious geographic

†††††† disadvantage.

†† c. The Peloponesian War ended the Athenian greatness.

XIII. Lovers of Wisdom

†† a. Some Greek thinkers denied that events were caused by the whim of gods.

†† b. Philosophers explored many subjects, from mathematics and physics to music and

†††††† logic, or rational thinking.

†† c. Rhetoric: the art of skillful speaking.

XIV. Death of a Philosopher

a. Most of what we know about Socrates comes from his student Plato.

b. When Socrates was about 70, he was put on trial for corrupting the cities youth and

††† failing to respect the godís.

c. Loyal to the laws of Athens, Socrates accepted the death penalty.

XV. Ideas About Government

†† a. The death of Socrates so shocked and disturbed Plato that he left Athens for 10 years.

†† b. Like Socrates, Plato emphasized the importance of reason.

†† c. Platoís most famous student, Aristotle, developed his own ideas about the best kind

†††††† of government.

XVI. The Search for Beauty and Order

†† a. The most famous Greek temple, the Parthenon, was dedicated to the goddess Athena.

†† b. In ancient times, a towering figure of Athena, covered in gold and ivory, stood inside

†††††† the Parthenon.

†† c. The only Greek paintings to survive are on vases and other pottery.

XVII. Poetry and Drama

†† a. The first Greek plays evolved out of religious festivals, especially those held in

†††††† Athens to honor Dionysus, god of fertility and wine.

†† b. The greatest Athenian playwrights were Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.

†† c. Comedies: humorous plays that mocked people or customs.


XVIII. Macedonian Ambitions

a. To the Greeks, the rugged, mountainous kingdom of Macedonia was a backward,

†††††† half-civilized land.

†† b. When Phillip gained the Macedonian throne in 359 B.C., he dreamed of conquering

†††††† the prosperous, warring city states of the south.

c. Phillip wanted to conquer the Persian Empire.

XIX. A Mighty Conqueror

†† a. Although Alexander was only 20 years old, he was already an experienced soldier.

†† b. Like his father, Alexander planned to invade Persia.

†† c. With much of the Persian Empire under his control, the restless young conqueror

†††††† headed further east.

XX. The Legacy of Alexander

†† a. Alexanderís conquests linked a vast area.

†† b. At the heart of the Hellenistic world stood the city of Alexandria, Egypt.

†† c. Paintings, statues, and legal codes reveal that women were no longer restricted to

†††††† their houses in the Hellenistic period.

XXI. Hellenistic Civilization

†† a. The political turmoil of the Hellenistic age contributed to the rise of new school of

†††††† philosophy.

†† b. The Hellenistic age saw important advances in the sciences and mathematics.

†† c. About 400 B.C., the Greek physician Hippocrates studied the cause of illnesses and

†††††† looked for cures.

XXII. Looking Ahead

†† a. During the Hellenistic period, a powerful new state, Rome, came to dominate the

†††††† Mediterranean world.

†† b. Greek ideas and laws have influenced the recent world.

†† c. Greek legacy influenced the civilizations of Rome and Western Europe.


Chapter 6

I. The Italian Landscape

†† a. Rome began as a small city state in Italy but ended up ruling the entire Mediterranean

†††††† world.

†† b. Italy is a peninsula that looks like a boot, jutting into the Mediterranean Sea and

†††††† kicking the island of Sicily toward North Africa.

†† c. Because of its geography, Italy was much easier to unify than Greece.

II. Roman Beginnings

†† a. The Romans, like the Greeks, were an Indo European people.

†† b. The Romans shared the Italian peninsula with other people, whose ideas they adapted.

†† c. The Etruscans, who had come from Asian Minor, ruled much of central Italy,

†††††† including Rome itself.

III. The Early Republic

†† a. Republic: thing of the people.

†† b. Patricians: members of the landholding upper class.

†† c. Dictator: ruler who has complete control over a government.

IV. Expansion in Italy

†† a. Romeís success was due partly to skillful diplomacy and partly to its efficient, well

††††† disciplined army.

†† b. Rome generally treated its defeated enemies with justice.

†† c. To protect its conquests, Rome posted soldiers through out the land.


V. Rivalry with Carthage

†† a. Romeís conquest of the Italian peninsula brought it into contact with a new rival

††††† Carthage.

†† b. Carthage was a city state on the northern coast of Africa.

†† c. Between 264 B.C. and 146 B.C., Rome fought three wars against Carthage.

VI. War with Hannibal

a. Several years after his fatherís death, Hannibal was selected as leader of the

††† Carthaginian army.

†† b. At first the Romans allowed Hannibal to remain free after the war.

†† c. Hannibal died and Carthage kept its terms of peace.

VII. Ruler of the Mediterranean World

†† a. While Rome was fighting Carthage, they were expanding to the west.

†† b. One by one Rome began to bring Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor under

†††††† its rule

†† c. Roman power expanded from Spain to Egypt.