†† a. Washed by the
warm waters of the
†† b. The Palace at
†† c. 1400 B.C. is about when the Minoan civilization disappeared.
II. Rulers of
†† a. The Mycenaeans were an Indo-European people, like the Aryans who swept into
†† b. The Mycenaeans are best remembered for their part in the Trojan War which took
†††††† place ar9und 1250 B.C.
†† c. Straits: narrow water passages.
III. The Age of Homer
†† a. Hot long after
the fall of
†††† ††sea raiders.
†† b. We get hints about life during this period from two great epic poems, the Iliad and
†††††† the Odyssey.
†† c. According to tradition, Homer was a blind poet who wandered from village to
†††††† village, playing his harp and singing heroic deeds.
IV. Looking Ahead
†† a. For centuries after the Dorian invasions, the Greeks lived in small, isolated villages.
†† b. Over time the
stories the Greeks heard about
†††††† and became part of the Greek heritage.
†† c. The ancient Greeks absorbed many ideas and beliefs from older civilizations in
V. Geography: The Greek Homeland
†††††† the eastern
†† b. The
†† c. With hundreds of bays, the Greek coast provided safe harbors for ships.
†† a. Acropolis: high city on top of a hill or cliff.
†† b. Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., Greeks evolved different kinds of government
†† c. Monarchy: a government in which a king or queen rules all.
VII. Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers
†† a. The Spartans
were Dorians who conquered
†† b. From childhood, a Spartan prepared to be part of the military state.
†† c. As part of a warrior society, women were expected to produce healthy sons for the
VIII. Athens: A Limited Democracy
†† a. Solon, a wise and trusted leader, was appointed archon, or chief official, in 594 B.C.
†† b. The Athenian tyrant Pisistratus seized power in 546 B.C.
†† c. By modern standards, Athenian democracy was quite limited.
IX. Forces for Unity
†† a. Like most other ancient people, the Greeks were polytheistic.
†† b. Greeks honored their gods with temples and festivals.
†† c. As trade expanded and Greek colonies multiplied, the Greeks came in contact with
†††††† people who spoke different languages and had different customs.
X. The Persian Wars
†† a. By 500 B.C.,
†† b. In 480 B.C.,
Xerxes sent a large force to conquer
†† c. Victory in the Persian Wars increased the Greek sense of their own uniqueness.
XI. Athens in the Age of Pericles
†† a. Pericles believed that all male citizens, regardless of wealth or social class, should
†††††† take part in government.
†† c. With the help of an educated foreign-born woman named Aspasia, Pericles turned
XII. Greek Against Greek
†† a. The power of
†† b. Despite its
riches and powerful navy,
†† c. The Peloponesian War ended the Athenian greatness.
XIII. Lovers of Wisdom
†† a. Some Greek thinkers denied that events were caused by the whim of gods.
†† b. Philosophers explored many subjects, from mathematics and physics to music and
†††††† logic, or rational thinking.
†† c. Rhetoric: the art of skillful speaking.
XIV. Death of a Philosopher
a. Most of what we know about Socrates comes from his student Plato. †
b. When Socrates was about 70, he was put on trial for corrupting the cities youth and
††† failing to respect the godís.
c. Loyal to the laws of
XV. Ideas About Government
†† a. The death of
Socrates so shocked and disturbed Plato that he left
†† b. Like Socrates, Plato emphasized the importance of reason.
†† c. Platoís most famous student, Aristotle, developed his own ideas about the best kind
†††††† of government.
XVI. The Search for Beauty and Order
†† a. The most famous Greek temple, the Parthenon, was dedicated to the goddess Athena.
†† b. In ancient times, a towering figure of Athena, covered in gold and ivory, stood inside
†††††† the Parthenon.
†† c. The only Greek paintings to survive are on vases and other pottery.
XVII. Poetry and Drama
†† a. The first Greek plays evolved out of religious festivals, especially those held in
†† b. The greatest Athenian playwrights were Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.
†† c. Comedies: humorous plays that mocked people or customs.
XVIII. Macedonian Ambitions
†† a. To the Greeks, the rugged, mountainous
†††††† half-civilized land.
†† b. When Phillip gained the Macedonian throne in 359 B.C., he dreamed of conquering
†††††† the prosperous, warring city states of the south.†
† †c. Phillip wanted to conquer the
XIX. A Mighty Conqueror
†† a. Although Alexander was only 20 years old, he was already an experienced soldier.
†† b. Like his father,
Alexander planned to invade
With much of the
†††††† headed further east.
XX. The Legacy of Alexander
†† a. Alexanderís conquests linked a vast area.
†† b. At the heart of
the Hellenistic world stood the city of
†† c. Paintings, statues, and legal codes reveal that women were no longer restricted to
†††††† their houses in the Hellenistic period. †
XXI. Hellenistic Civilization
†† a. The political turmoil of the Hellenistic age contributed to the rise of new school of
†† b. The Hellenistic age saw important advances in the sciences and mathematics.
†† c. About 400 B.C., the Greek physician Hippocrates studied the cause of illnesses and
†††††† looked for cures.
XXII. Looking Ahead
†† a. During the
Hellenistic period, a powerful new state,
†††††† Mediterranean world.
†† b. Greek ideas and laws have influenced the recent world.
†† c. Greek legacy
influenced the civilizations of
I. The Italian Landscape
†††††† kicking the
†† c. Because of its
II. Roman Beginnings
†† a. The Romans, like the Greeks, were an Indo European people.
†† b. The Romans shared the Italian peninsula with other people, whose ideas they adapted.
†† c. The Etruscans,
who had come from Asian Minor, ruled much of central
III. The Early Republic
†† a. Republic: thing of the people.
†† b. Patricians: members of the landholding upper class.
†† c. Dictator: ruler who has complete control over a government.
IV. Expansion in
††††† disciplined army.
†† c. To protect its
V. Rivalry with
†† c. Between 264 B.C.
and 146 B.C.,
VI. War with
a. Several years after his
††† Carthaginian army.
†† b. At first the
VII. Ruler of the Mediterranean World
†† a. While
†† b. One by one
†††††† its rule
†† c. Roman power